Insulin plant Costus pictus

The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Costus pictus (C.pictus) D. Don, on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of fresh leaf extract (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days treatment resulted in significant decrease in blood glucose level and lipid profiles.  There were also significant changes observed in carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and antioxidants. The nitrogenous wastes such as urea, uric acid and creatinine were also found decreased after the treatment. The study clearly shows that the effect of the drug (400 mg/kg body weight) was equally effective with the standard drug glibenclamide. To find out the biomarkers, pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies were carried out . The leaf of C. pictus is characterized by simple unicellular, pointed non-glandular trichomes, absence of palisade layer and hypodermal layers containing shattered crystals. Micromorphological characters of the leaf are also given.  The leaves are found to contain flavonoids such as kaempferol, 3’, 4’-di O-Me-quercetin and 4’-OMe-Kaempferol and  phenolic acids such as gentisic, 2, 5-dihydroxy benzoic acid, o-coumaric, melilotic, α-resorcyclic, 3,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid, p- hydroxy benzoic acid, cis and trans-p-coumaric acid.

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder very well known and widespread all over the world. Different types of oral hypoglycemic agents such as insulin, suphonylurea etc. are used for the treatment of this disease, but they cause side effects on continued use. There is a growing interest in phytomedicine because of their effectiveness, fewer side effects and low costs. Many Indian medicinal plants are reported   to   be   useful   in   diabetes.   C.   pictus   D.Don. (Costaceae) an ornamental plant of Mexico, is one such plant newly introduced to India.  It is an erect herb growing up to 3 meters tall,  having stem horizontally striped at base; leaves narrowly lanceolate, dark green above, lighter green below; small leaves are present on the basal part; bracts green, with outer margin coloured maroon. Flowers yellow; lip with maroon striations, darker yellow stripe down the middle region; anther cream coloured. This plant is distributed along the coast from Mexico to Costa Rica and is locally known as cana agria or cana de jabali in Mexico. In Mexico, it is used to treat diseases of the kidney. It is reported to have effects on renal functions and its anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic  actions.  The  practitioners  in  Mexico used an infusion of this plant in the treatment of renal disorders; the plant also possesses diuretic activity. The plant was reported to contain flavonoids, saponins, reduced sugars and tannins.
The present study was undertaken to test the plant for its antidiabetic activities, toxicity of the extract on normal rats and the effect of the extract on the antioxidant enzymes, non- enzymatic  antioxidant,  carbohydrate metabolizing  enzymes and   lipid   profile.   Pharmacognostic   and   phytochemical analysis of the leaves were also conducted.
Insulin plant is a relatively new entrant to Kerala and India. Insulin plant has not got a Malayalam name yet, except the occasional use of insulin chedy or insulin chedi, where chedy means a plant. The catchphrase of this plant is ‘a leaf a day keeps diabetes away’.
The plant is characterized by large fleshy looking leaves. It grows very quickly. Propagation is by stem cutting. It grows in slightly shady areas.
Diabetes patients are advised to chew down a leaf in the morning and one in the evening for a month. Allopathic doctors too recommend it and it is found to be effective in bringing blood sugar levels under completely under control. There is also dried and ground powder of the leaves now available in the market.
* With FBS below 200, take ONE leaf daily before breakfast and drink a glass of water
* With FBS above 200, take TWO leaves in the morning and TWO at night on a daily basis.
 Preparation of aqueous extract
The leaves of C. pictus (Costaceae) were collected from Vadodara City, Gujarat. A Voucher specimen was deposited in the herbarium of the Botany department of M. S. University. For preparing the extract, 500 g of Fresh leaves were boiled in water for 30 min. The extract was then filtered and the process of boiling was repeated three times with the residue, each time collecting the extract. The collected extract was  pooled  and  passed  through  a  fine  muslin  cloth.  The filtrate upon evaporation at 40°C yielded 14.5% semi solid extract.
Lipids in the diabetic subjects is mainly due to an increase in the mobalization of free fatty acids from the peripheral fat deposit [34]. The hypolipidemic effect of C. pictus could be explained as a direct result of the reduction in blood glucose concentration.
The present findings suggest that the plant extract is non- toxic, since no marked changes were observed in the normal rats fed with the extract.  Thus, at normal therapeutic doses, the extract was considered to be safe for long-term treatment in diabetic condition. The leaf extract showed potent antidiabetic activity and the dose 400mg/kg body weight was more effective than 200 mg/kg body weight. 400 mg dose was all most equally effective with the standard drug glibenclamide.   Apart   from   this   the   plant   extract   also improved the activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, thereby scavenging the free radical that initiates the lipid peroxidation. The decreased level of urea, uric acid and creatinine in the treated rats clearly shows that the plant extract, protects the diabetic rats from alloxan induced renal damage.  The  plant  extract  also  lowered  the  plasma  lipid levels,   the   antihyperlipidemic   effect   of   the   extract   in particular can be considered as a possible therapeutic value. The result observed in all these parameters were statistically significant (p<0.05). Thus all these activities exhibited by the extract can be attributed to the presence of the active constituent of the plant. Longer duration studies of C. pictus extract and its isolated compounds are necessary to develop a potent antidiabetic drug.
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After doing lot of search we could manage to set a network of expert collectors of seeds and plants in every part of country.
List of best variety of material we managed is given with maturation period as well as most appropriate sowing time. Our aim is to provide best service and material.

Planting Material

Plant Material
After doing lot of search we could manage to set a network of expert collectors of seeds and plants in every part of country.
List of best variety of material we managed is given with maturation period as well as most appropriate sowing time. Our aim is to provide best service and material.
Botanical Name
Hindi Name
Maturation Period
Most Apporpiate Sowing Time
Acacia arabica (A. nilotica)
Babul , Kikar
Acacia auriculaeformis
Australian babul, Dal Mooth
Acacia catechu
Khair, Katha
Acacia dealbata
Silwan Vatal, Pahadi Babul
Acacia decurrens
Green Vatal , Hara Babul
Acacia leucocephala
White, Kikar
Acicia lenticularis (A.ferruginea)
Kangar, Khair
Acacia Mangium
Australian Teek
Acacia Melanoxylon
Australian Kali Lakdi
Acacia Mollissima (A.mearnsi)
Kala Watan
Acacia Planifrons 
Acacia Senegal
Acacia Suma(A.compylacantha)
Acacia tortillis(A.raddiana)
Acer Oblongum
Acrocarpus Fraxinifolius
Adenanthera Pavonina
Adina Cordifolia
Aegle Marmelos
Ailanthus Excelsa
Alstonci Scholaris
Albizia Lebbeck
Kala Siras
Albizia Lucida
Videshi Siras
Albizia Moluccana (A. facataria)
Keral Siras
Albizia Odoratissima
Albizia Procera
Safed Siras
Albizia Richardiana
Madhgasar siras
Albizia Stipulata (A.chinensis)
Chini siras
Artobotris Odorarissimus (Kanthali Champa)
Aesculces Indica
Alibiza Amara
Anacardium Occidentale Cashew nut
Anogeissus Latifolia
Anogeissus Pendula
Anthocephalus Indieus (A.cadamba)
Azadirachta Indica (SL)
Barringtonia Acutangula (SL)
Bassia Latifolia (Madhucaindica)(SL)
Bauhinia Malabarica
Bauhinia Purpurea
Kaniyar, Lal kachnaar
Bauhinia Racemosa
Guriyaal, jhinjhora
Bauhinia Retusa
Kandla, Kural semla
Bauhinia Vahili (Creeper)
Bauhinia Variegata
Bischofia Javanica (fruit)
Jhilar bilar fal
Broussonetia Papyrifera
Paper Malwari
Butea Frondosa (B.monosperma)
Dhaak ,Palash
Callistemoni Lanceolatus-Bottle Brush
Lal bottle, Brush
Cassia Alata
Cassia Fistula
Cassia Glavca
Peela Pushpadar
Cassia Grandis
Kesiya grandis
Cassia Javanica
Java Amaltas
Cassia Marginata
Gulabi Amaltas
Cassia Multijuga
Multijuga Amaltas
Cassia Nodosa
Gulabi Amaltas
Cassia Renigera
Bhrahmij Amaltas
Cassia Siamea (C.florida)
Kasod, Chukdi
Cassia Spectabilis-Golder Wounder
Sunhera Amaltas
Castanea Sativa (C.vulgaris)(SL)
Casuarina Equisetofolia
Chok , Jhau
Cedrela Toona (toona ciliate)
Chickrassia Tabularis
Ceiba Pentandra
Safed saymal
Celtis Australis
Chorsia Speciosa
Mexican Rui
Cinnamomum Camphora (SL)
Calespermia Pulchurima
Lal Gulmohar
Cardia Dichotama (C.myxa)
Chota Lasoda
Cardia Wallichii (C.obliqva)
Bada Lasoda
Delbergia Assamica
Asami Sheesham
Delbergia Latifolia
Kala Sheesham
Delbergia Sissoo
Delonix Regia
Dillenia Indica
Diospyros Melanoxylon
Elaeocarpus Ganitrus
Erythrina Indica Coral Tree
Erythrina Suberosa Dadap
Dhoal Dhak
Eucalyptus Red Gum
Daldal Safeda
Citriodora Lemon Scented Gum
Sugandhit Safeda
“Globulus-Blue Gum
Pahadi Eyucalyptus
Grandis Safeda
Sankar Eyucalyptus, Safeda
“Robusta-Iron Bark
Badi Chal Eyucalyptus
“tereticornis-Grey Gum
Mysore Safeda
Ficus Benjamina-Java Willow
Jawa Badh
Ficus Bengalensis
Ficus Elastica
Rubber Deshi
Ficus Infectoria (F. lacer)
Ficus Recemosa
Ficus Religiosa
Ficus Krishnae
Ficus Retusa
Gliricidia Maculata (G.sepium)
gliricidia maculata
Gmelina Arborea (treated)
Grevillea Robusta
Silver Oak
Grewia Oppositifolia
Hardwickia Pinnata
Holoptelia Integrifolia
Chilvil, chillar
Jacaranda Minosaefolia
Jatropha Curcus
Kigelia Pennata
Balam Khira
Kpelreuteria Apiculata
Gulabi Tunn
Lagerstroemia Flos-reginae
Lagerstroemia Indica
Lagerstroemia Thorelli
Leucaena Leucoeephala Native Variety
Subabul deshi
Leucaena Hawaiin K-8
Subabul L-8 Hawai
Melia Azadarch
Melia Compostia (
Badi Bacane
Mesua Ferrea
Nag Kesar
Michelia Champaca
Swarn Champa
Milletia Ovalifolia
Taug Ka Jaav
Mimusops Elengi (SL)
Mimusops Hexandra
Moringa Pterygosperma (PKI)
Morus alba-White mulbery
Shahtut Safeda
Morus Indica
Deshi Shahtut
Nyctanthes Arboristris
Har Singar
Ougenia Dallbergioides
Morus alba-ptefgosperma
Parkia Roxburghii (P. javanica)
Parkia biglandulosa
Parkia Biglandulosa
Apr- May
Apr- May
Peltophorum ferrugineum
Gulmohar Pilay Phool
Dec- Jan
Mar- Apr
Phyllanthus emblica
Jan- Feb
Mar- Apr
Pithecolobium Retgia (Delonix regia)
Gulmohar, Krishna Chuda
Polylthea longifolia (SL)
July- Aug
July- Aug
“Longifolia var pendula (SL)
Pendula Ashok
July- Aug
July- Aug
Pongamia pinnata (P.glabra)
Karanj, Sukh – Chain
Jan- Feb
Mar- Apr
Prosopis juliflora (P.chinensis)
Shami, Kabuli Kikar
Apr- June
Prosopis cineraria (P.speigera)
Chonkar, jaad
Apr- June
Apr- June
Prunus puddum
Won Cherry
Apr- June
Apr- June
Pterocarpus marsupium
Bija Sal
June- July
June- July
Pterospermum accerifolium
Kanak Champa
Jan – Feb
Mar- Apr
Putranjiva roxburghii-Child Life tree
Putra Jiva (Jiya – Puta)
Jan- Feb
Mar- Apr
Pithecolobivm Saman (Rain tree)
June – July
Apr – July
Rerminalia myriocarpa
Terminalia Myriocarpa
Thespesia nerifolia
Pila Kaner
Quercus incana (SL)
Oct – Nov
Nov – Dec
Quercus Serrata (SL)
Oct – Nov
Nov – Dec
Ravenala madagascariensis
Madgasar palm, Yatri palm
Robinia Pseudoacacia-Locust tree
Oct – Nov
Mar- Apr
Salmalia malabarica
Semal Lal
Apr – May
Apr – May
Santalum album
Safed Chandan
May – June
June – July
Santalum Saritalinus
Lal Chandan
Sesbsnia grandiflora
August, wasna
June – Aug
June – Aug
Sapindus mukorossii
Oct – Nov
Mar- Apr
Saplum sebiferum
Taar Charbi
Sept – Oct
Mar- Apr
Saraca Indica (S.osaca)(SL)
Sita- Ashok
June – Aug
June – Aug
Schleichere trijuga (S.deosa)
Kusum / Kamni
Aug – Sept
Aug – Sept
Shorearobusta (SL)
Spathodea campanlata
Apr – May
Apr – May
Sterculia alata
Streculia Ala
Feb – Mar
Mar- Apr
Streculia Urens
Streculia Fioetida
Strychnos nux-vamica
Apr – June
Apr – June
Sweitenia mycophylla
Sweitenia mycophylla
Mar – Apr
Mar- Apr
Sweitenia mahagony
Mar – Apr
Mar- Apr
Tabebuia avellahedae
Tabebuia baccata
Tecoma argentea (SL)
Tecoma Argentea
Dec- Jan
Mar- Apr
Tecoma stans
Tecoma Stans
Dec- Jan
Mar- Apr
Recoma Undulata
Tecoma Undulata
Mar – Apr
Mar- Apr
Tectona grandis
Sagoon Sangwan
Dec- Jan
Apr – May
Tectona grandis (pre-heated)
Dec- Jan
Mar- Apr
Tamindus Indica
June – July
June – July
Terminalia arjuna
Jan – Feb
Mar- Apr
Terminalia belerica
Jan – Feb
Mar- Apr
Terminalia catappa
Jungli Badam
Aug – Oct
Aug – Sept
Terminalia chebula
Feb – Mar
Mar- Apr
Terminalia tomentosa
Feb – Mar
Mar- Apr
Tabebuia Rosea
Terminalia Myriocarpa
Terminalia Myriocarpa
Trewia nudiflora
Sep – Oct
Mar – Apr
Wrightia tinctoria
Sep – Oct
Mar – Apr
Araucaria cookii
Christmas Tree
July – Sep
July – Sep
Araucaria badwallia
Araucaria badwallia
June – July
July – Aug
Araucaria cunninghamii
Araucaria cunninghamii
June – July
July – Aug
Araucaria excelsa
May – June
May – June
Agathis robesta
Cedrus deodara
Sep – Oct
Nov – Feb
Crytomeria japonica
Japani Sidaar
Sep – Nov
Sep – Nov
Cupressus arizonica
May – June
May – June
Cupressus cashmeriana
Cashmer Saru
Sep – Nov
Sep – Nov
Cupressus funebris
Vipran Saru
Sep – Nov
Sep – Oct
Cupressus macrocarpa
Pahadi Saru
Sep – Oct
Sep – Oct
Cupressus sempervirens
Tajmahal Saru
Sep – Nov
Sep – Oct
Cupressus torulosa
Sep – Nov
Sep – Oct
Pinus excelsa
Sep – Oct
Nov – Feb
Pinnus geratdiana
Sep – Nov
Mar – Apr
Pinus Khasia
Khasi Chid
Apr – May
Apr – May
Pinus petula
Ushandesh Chid
Apr – May
Apr – May
Pinus roxburghii
Samanya Chid
Apr – May
Sep – Oct
Podocarpus gracilior
Aug – Sep
Aug – Sep
Picea smithiana (Spruce)
Nov – Dec
Jan – Feb
Taxodium mucronatum
Daldali Saru
July – Sep
July – Sep
Thuja campacta
Morpankhi Gol
Aug – Sep
Sep – Oct
Thuja oncehtalis
Morpankhi Lambi
Aug – Sep
Sep – Oct
Bambusa Nutans
Bambusa Vaugris only cutting & Plants
Peela Bass
( Each )
Bambusa Ventriosa (Lota bamboo)
Lota Bass
( Each )
Bambusa Bambos (B.arundinacea)
Katela Bass
May – June
May – June
Dendrocalamus calostachyus
Mota Bass
May – June
Mar – June
Dendrocalamus gigenteus
Khokala Bass
May – June
Mar – June
Dendrocalamus strictus
Chadi Bass
May – June
Mar – June
Dendrocalamus Hamilbonni
Cenchrus ciliaris
Tanjana Ghaas
June – July
Mar – Sep
Cenchrus setigerus
Ghaman Ghaas
June – July
Mar – Sep
Cynodon dactylon
Doob Ghaas
Apr – May
June – July
Mar – Sep
Medicago saliva
Vilayati Ghaas, Lusaran
June – July
Mar – Sep
Melilotus parviflora (M.indica)
June – July
Mar – Sep
Red clover
Lal Clover
June – July
June – July
Stylosanthus humata
June – July
Mar – Sep
Stulosanthus scabra
June – July
Mar – Sep
Trigolium Alexaindrlum(Clover)
June – July
Mar – Sep
Doob Ghaas
Areca Catechu
Areca Nutpalm
Feb – Mar
Feb -Mar
Caryoto urens
Machli Palm
May – July
May – June
Cycus Revolata (Seed)
(Blub Small Big Bulbs available)
Livistona chinensis (L-mauritiana)
Cheeni Palm
Feb – Mar
July – Sep
Livistona jenkinsiana
Asami Palm
July – Sep
July – Sep
Oreodoza regia
Bottle Palm
May – Aug
May – July
Phoneix acullis
Khajur Palm
Apr – May
May – June
Phoneix dactylifera
May – June
May – June
Phoneix rupicola
Khajur Palm
July – Aug
July – Aug
Phoneix sylvstris
May – June
May – June
Pitchardia grandis (Lucoia grandis)
Pitchardia Palm 
Oct – Nov
Nov – Dec
Achras sapota
Aegle marmelos
Apr – May
Apr – May
Aug – Sep
Sep – Oct
Anona squamosa
May – June
Apr – June
Artocarpus integrifolia
May – June
Apr – June
Artocarpus Lakooch
May – June
Apr – June
Carica (popaya) coorg Honeydew
Papita Honeydew
Apr – June
Carica (popaya) Ranchi
Ranchi Bona Papita
Apr – June
Apr – May
Carica (Popaya) Mammothlarge
Deshi Bada
Apr – June
Apr – May
Jiglans Regia (Akrot)
Sep – Oct
Oct – Mar
Carica (Popaya )Washington
Apr – June
Apr – May
Calsanea Sativa (Chasnut)
Sep – Oct
Citrus aurantifolia
Kagaji Nimboo
July – Nov
May – Apr
Citrus maxima
Nov – Jan
Mar – Apr
Engenia jambolana
Grewia asiatica
Apr – June
Apr – June
Jan – Feb
Jan – Feb
Prisium (Gauava) Allahabadi
Amrud Allahabadi
June – Sep
July – Aug
Prisium (Gauava) Red Fleshed
Amrud Lal
June – Sep
July – Aug
Psidium Gauaval L-49
Amrud lucknow L- 49
Aug – Sep
Oct – Nov
Punica granatum
Phyllanthus Emblica
Jan – Feb
Mar – Apr
Zizyphus Jujuba
Zizyphus mauritana
Ber Gola
May – June
May – June
Acacia farnesiana
Jhadi Babool
Apr – June
Apr – May
Dadonea visoca
June – July
Mar – July
Duranta Piumieri
Sep – Oct
Mar – Apr
Lowsonia alba
June – July
Mar – July
Murraya Exotica
Dec – Jan
Dec – Jan
Murraya Konghii
Kaddi Patta
June – July
June – July
Parkinsonia aculeatap
Rakinsonia aculeata
May – June
Apr – June
Pithecolobium duice
Jungle Jalebi
June – July
Apr – June
Sesbania aegyptica
May – June
Mar – June
Caesalpinia pulcherima
Radha Chura , Chota Gulmohar
Cassia alata
Daad Madran
Cassia glauca
Peeli Jhadi
Cassia auriculata
Cassia laevigata
Kesiya Laevigata
Indigofera tinctoria
Azadirachta indica
Ablemos Chub Moschotus
Lata Kasturi/ Mushakdana
Adrus precataris
Gunja , Ratti
Acacia concina
Antignonalba (Creeper)
Acorus Calamus (Rhiazone)
Aloe Barbadensis
Dhrit Kumari
Anacyclus Pyrethrum
Andographis Paniculata
Arferia Speciosa
Asparagus Racemosus
Abroma Augesta
Ulat Kambal
Barberis Aristata
Daru Haldi
Bixa Orellena
Annando , Sindoori
Caesalpinia Bonducela
Callicarpa Macrophylla
Calastrus Paniculata
Centela Asiatica
Chlorophythum Borivlianum
Safed Musli
Citrullus Coloynthus
Citrullus Ternata
Croton Tiglium
Jamal Ghota
Coffee Arabica
Cassia angustifolia
Datura Fastuosa
Desmodium Gangticum
Eclipta Alba
Gloriosa Superba
Gymnema Sylvestre
Helecter Isora
Holarrhena antidy-sentrica
Ipomea Biloba
Kala Dana
Lapidiuim Stivum
Mallotus Phillipinesis
Mimosa Pudica
Mucuna Pruriens
Safed Konch
Mucuna Pruiens
Kali Konch
Myrica Esculanta
Myristica Fragrans
Nelumbium speciosm
Ocimum Sanctum
Shyama Tulsi
Oroxylum indicum
Sonpada, Totiya
Pedelium Murex
Bada Gokharu
Piper Longum (Plant Available)
Piper Cubeba
Sheetal Cheeni
Plantago Ovata
Rawwalfia Serpentina
Ricinus communis
Sidea Cordifolia
Solanam Indicum
Solanum xanthocarpum
Solanum Khassianum
Badi Kateli
Strychnos nux-vomica
Vitex Nigundo
Vernonia antheliniunatica
Vinca rosea
Wrightia tinctoria
Meetha Indra ji
Withania Somimifera
Elettaria Cardamum
Badi Ilaichi
Cynammonum Zeylancium
Tej Pata
Commsiphoia Myrrha
Kali Mirchi

Farm Development Plan

The SMART Farm Development Plan
The SMART Farm Development Plan provides customers to subsidize the cost of preparing a  Farm Development Plan.
The Plan should:
•           Audit  existing  on-farm  irrigation  activities and other property water uses;
•           Assess short and longer term opportunities to sustainably increase irrigated productivity and production on the property, taking account of topography, soil types and other important property planning matters;
•           Determine   options   to   access   additional irrigation water through water use efficiency gains, identifying new opportunities for storages and/or groundwater extraction; and
•           Identify  the  economic  and  environmental issues to be considered in progressing these options
Essential Elements of a Farm
Water Development Plan
A   Farm  Development  Plan must include:
•          An overview of the property including:
–           Property  Owner  names  and  contact details
–           Property   Name,   Address   and   Title reference
–           Map location (1:25,000)
–           Main Water Course (if relevant)
–           Total   Farm  Area       =       Effective Cropping/Grazing area, native bushland, irrigable area based on land capability) Ha
–           Water Sources (Dam(s), Winter Storage Entitlement, Permanent Entitlements, Temporary Entitlements, Water Bores etc (if relevant)
–           Summary of recent farming enterprises in terms of livestock, pasture and crop areas
–           Photos  providing  an  overview  of  the property
•          A map(s) of the farm available in hardcopy showing
–           water courses
–           soil types
–           soil capability
–           drainage
–           native vegetation
–           existing          and     any      proposed        water storages and/or bores
–           water extraction from streams, irrigation and other main systems and layout
–           current and proposed irrigation areas
•          Climate
–           List nearest observation station
–           Rainfall: mean monthly
–           Temperature: mean monthly maximum and minimum
–           Evaporation: mean daily for each month
•          Soils/Land Capability
–           Soil  Class  –  discussion  of  associated risks,  crop  or  pasture  suitability, crop frequency,
–           Capability/suitability for irrigation
–           Drainage
–           Soil Conservation measures recommended to mitigate any potential
Effects of irrigation
 A water audit of the farm for the current irrigation systems and other main water uses covering:
–           Inventory of legal documents covering water entitlements and other non- legislative agreements including dam permits, water licences, bores, and temporary water trades.
–           Listing of current irrigation enterprises and irrigated area and other significant property water
–           Audit of existing water entitlements and agreements for ability      to meet reasonable quantitative and reliability needs for existing irrigation enterprises and  other  significant  property  water uses
–           Irrigation scheduling – methods used/to be used
–           Assessment  of  water  use  efficiency  – comparison of the irrigation practices with “normal and best practices” for the area
–           Comment   on   suitability   of   existing irrigation infrastructure and equipment
for optimising water use
–           Assessment of  potential water savings through          upgraded irrigation
Infrastructure and equipment and improved irrigation practices
•          Current water use by source
–           Livestock needs
–           Irrigation needs
–           Dairy shed operations
–           Other
•          Business
–           Business objectives showing how new water storage could be used to target production for an identified market, either crops, perennial horticulture, animal production and/or water trading
•          Potential use/future farming needs
–           Future water needs – likely risks for existing enterprises– environmental flows, drought, climate change, market requirements, EMS and QA requirements
–           Proposed changes to farm enterprises
–           Proposed increases to irrigated area
–           Other water needs (eg. stock watering, dairy shed use)
•          Potential   sources   of   increased water supplies
–           Quantitative assessment of potential for new or enlarged dams, extraction from watercourses (gravity and pumping) to help fill dams, bores, wastewater reuse, storm water use – include ML for each
–           Water use efficiency savings identified –include ML
–           Opportunities for water trading –include ML
–           Total new water development identified- ML
•          Identification   of   the   economic and environmental issues to be considered in progressing these water development options.
–           Capital costs
–           Ongoing operating costs
–           Net      revenue         from   productivity/production increases
–           Dam site suitability from an engineering perspective
–           Dam safety issues
–           Flora and fauna
–           Aquatic ecology
–           Hydrology
–           Geomorphology or
–           Aboriginal or historical cultural heritage
–           Salinity
–           Algae
(Note that this is an initial identification ONLY of potential flaws)
•          Summary and Recommendations
–           Preferred options for providing current and future water needs
–           Expected timetable for development of options
–           Further studies required to implement recommendations or to mitigate against identified risks

The Basics Of Composting

              The Basics Of Composting

What Is Compost?

Compost is simply decomposed organic material. The organic material can be plant material or animal matter. While composting may seem mysterious or complicated, it’s really a very simple and natural process that continuously occurs in nature, often without any assistance from mankind. If you’ve ever walked in the woods, you’ve experienced compost in its most natural setting. Both living plants and annual plants that die at the end of the season are consumed by animals of all sizes, from larger mammals, birds, and rodents to worms, insects, and microscopic organisms. The result of this natural cycle is compost, a combination of digested and undigested food that is left on the forest floor to create rich, usually soft, sweet-smelling soil.
Backyard composting is the intentional and managed decomposition of organic materials for the production of compost, that magical soil enhancer that is fundamental to good gardening. Anyone can effectively manage the composting process. In fact, if you have organic matter, it’s virtually impossible to prevent decomposition. The trick is to maximize the process of decomposition, while avoiding the unpleasant effects of the natural process of decaying matter. Compost is good; sloppy garbage heaps and rotting food are bad.

Why Is Compost So Good?
Compost is good for two very compelling reasons. It’s great for the garden, and it’s environmentally responsible.

Garden Benefits
Compost is great for the garden because it improves the soil, which in turn supports healthier and more productive plants. Compost provides virtually all of the essential nutrients for healthy plant growth, and it almost always releases those nutrients over time to give plants a slow, steady, consistent intake of the elements essential for growth. Compost also improves the soil’s structure, making it easier for soil to hold and use the right amount of moisture and air. Compost will improve the texture of both clay and sandy soil; indeed, compost is the best additive to make either clay or sandy soil into rich, moisture holding, loamy soil. And, as an added benefit, compost improves plant vigor and provides for improved immunology from diseases.

Environmental Benefits
The most obvious environmental benefit is that composting can significantly reduce the amount of solid waste that would otherwise find its way into the trash collection and dumping cycle. Clearly, the more we compost, the less we contribute to the cost of trash removal and the volume of solid materials in landfills. Using compost to feed your lawn and garden will also reduce your dependency on chemical fertilizers. So, you’ll save money and reduce – if not eliminate – the potential of chemical pollution to your little piece of the environment. Using compost instead of chemical fertilizers will ensure that your lawn and garden thrive in soil that is alive and healthy.

What’s The Best Way to Make Compost?
To make compost, you’ll need to dedicate some outdoor space to the process. Ideally, the location of your compost production should be convenient to the garden, as well as close to the source of the raw materials (kitchen scraps, lawn clippings, etc.), without being an unappealing eyesore. Finding a good spot for your compost pile might be a little bit easier if you have a lot of land; but, even suburbanites and city dwellers can effectively maintain a compost pile with a little bit of creativity and effort. And, the benefits – both to the garden and the environment – far exceed the effort!

Open Bins or Containers

There are two basic kinds of compost piles: open bins and enclosed containers.
Open bins can be constructed with wood, chicken wire, or recycled plastic. Of course, municipal large scale composting is often conducted in large open piles without the use of any bins at all. These compost heaps are often turned by bulldozers or other pieces of heavy equipment, so container walls are not practical.
Enclosed containers for composting usually consist of one of two designs: upright box-like containers, and rotating drums.

Advantages of Open Bin Composting
·         Open bins easily collect rain water
·         Open bins are very convenient for adding materials

Disadvantages of Open Bin Composting

·         Open bins can attract rodents, flies, bees, and bears
·         Open bins can become too wet, if not covered
·         Open bins may be more difficult to mix (more on that later)
·         Open bins may be an eyesore to your neighbors

Advantages of Compost Containers

·         Compost containers will rarely attract pests
·         Upright containers may be more aesthetically appealing
·         Rotating drums are usually easier to mix or turn
·         Rotating drums are easy to unload
·         Rotating drums usually have “screening” options

Disadvantages of Compost Containers

·         Enclosed containers usually require you to add water
·         Upright containers may be very difficult to mix or turn

Two Chambers are Always Better than One
Whether you choose to use an open bin or a compost container, two chambers are always better than one. In fact, if you are really serious about composting, having two chambers is a necessity. Because the composting process takes at least several weeks under the best conditions, you cannot add additional materials to the heap without “resetting the clock” to day. To create an ideal batch of fully composted material, your mix needs to “cook” for at least several weeks; if you add additional material, you’ll have a mix of fully decomposed material, partially decomposed material, and fresh materials. It’s simply much easier, and much more desirable to use a consistent mixture of fully decomposed compost for gardening purposes. After all, you wouldn’t want to buy a bag of potting soil that contained a rotting tomato in it!

Key Ingredients for Great Compost
One of the great aspects of composting is that the key ingredients are often things that you’d be tempted to throw away. So, with just a little effort, you can contribute less to the trash stream (good for the environment) and make great compost (good for your garden).
Compost is created when you provide the right mixture of key ingredients for the millions of microorganisms that do the dirty work. These microorganisms will eat, multiply, and convert raw materials to compost as long as the environment is right. The environment doesn’t have to be absolutely “perfect,” so you don’t need to be a microbiologist or chemist to have successful compost. You need to provide: food, water, and air.
The water and air are easy. The food is a little more complex. Food for your little micro friends consists of two classes of materials, simply referred to as “Greens” and “Browns.” Green materials are high in nitrogen, while brown materials are high in carbon. The green materials provide protein for the micro bugs, while the brown materials provide energy.

Typical green materials are:

  • Fresh (green) Grass clippings
  • Fresh manure (horse, chicken, rabbit, cow)
  • Kitchen scraps (fruit, vegetables, coffee grounds, tea bags)
  • Weeds
  • Green leaves
  • Leftover fruits from the garden
Typical brown materials include:

·         Brown, dry leaves
·         Dried grass
·         Cornstalks (shredded)
·         Straw
·         Sawdust

Just like us, the little microorganisms need a balanced diet, along with water and air. Too much, or too little of any ingredient significantly reduces their productivity. It is hard to have too much of the brown category. As noted earlier, leaves in the forest decompose without significant quantities of “green” components (although animal droppings do contribute to the green part of the mix) – but, the decomposition takes a little longer.
Too much green is usually the problem. A pile of kitchen garbage will never become useful compost; it simply becomes a smelly pile of garbage. Landfills are not composting sites. Most municipal composting operations begin with the huge quantities of dry leaves that are collected each fall.
A good mix of browns and greens also helps the pile maintain the right amount of moisture and air. A pile that is 100% grass clippings, for example, will quickly become a matted, soggy mess, with too much moisture and too little air. It will decompose, quickly at first, but then stall. Mix in some dry leaves, and you’ll have a significantly more efficient mixture. The dry leave help maintain air pockets within the pile and also provide a more balanced diet for the bacteria and fungi that cause the decomposition.

The Ideal Combination of Browns and Greens
The best combination of browns and greens is about 4 parts of “browns” to one part “greens” by volume. Of course, this is a rough approximation. If you have more browns, you’ll still get compost. it’ll just take a little longer. If you are on the side of too much green, you’ll likely have a smelly garbage heap.
The best source of brown material is dry leaves. In many parts of the country, the annual fall clean-up of leaves from deciduous trees is seen as a necessary chore. I choose to see it as the harvest for next year’s compost pile! Harvesting, shredding, and storing dry leaves is the best thing you can do to create great compost. Use a leaf vacuum or a lawn mower to shred the leaves, and collect them when they’re dry, if at all possible. I like to store my stash of dry leaves in large plastic bags that I can hide under my deck or porch until I need them to keep the greens in my compost bin balanced.

“Hot” vs. “Cold” Composting
As noted earlier, decomposition occurs naturally, and, except for extreme conditions, it’s virtually impossible to stop it. But, decomposition doesn’t necessarily occur efficiently.
When we provide the micro bugs with a good mixture of browns and greens, as well as some water and air, decomposition can be very efficient. This is known as “hot” composting, sometimes call “aerobic” composting, because the microbes that require air have sufficient air to live, eat, and reproduce quickly. The compost pile can attain temperatures as high as 160 degrees Fahrenheit, which will kill some weed seeds, make most of the microbes very active, but will deter worms and some other critters. As the pile cools, the worms will return to assist in the decomposition. Hot composting is fast, and a well maintained compost heap can fully decompose in several weeks. While some ads claim that you can make compost in 14 days, I’ve never experienced that phenomenon in over 25 years of careful composting.
Cold” composting is slower, primarily because the environment is hospitable to some of the micro bugs, but it’s hardly ideal. This is the form of composting that almost always occurs in the forest, where the mix is often comprised of dry leaves and dead wood. It will decompose over time, but the temperature never gets very high, and the process can take years.
Our goal is to create a composting environment that is “hot“. At least during the late spring, summer, and early fall.

Getting Started – Activators, Worms, Microorganisms
You’ve built or bought a composter. You have some dry leaves and you’ll be adding green materials (lawn clippings, kitchen waste, plant scraps) all summer. To some extent, you’ll be layering these materials to provide both a balanced diet and the best mix for air and water penetration.

How can you be sure that the composting will start?
Do you need to buy a “compost activator” or a batch of worms?
What if there aren’t any microorganisms in the mix?
No. No. and, Don’t Worry.
The microorganism essential to composting are plentiful in nature. (That’s why mom always told us to wash our hands after playing outside!) If you’re starting with leaves and other natural materials, you’ve got bacteria and fungi that are eager to help you make compost. And, if you want to give the mix a little boost, one excellent and free additive is simply a shovel full of good garden soil. Assuming that it hasn’t been polluted with nasty chemicals, the soil is full of microbes that are eager to devour the goodies in your compost pile.
Compost activators won’t hurt, but they may not help enough to justify the cost. Mike McGrath, former editor of Organic Gardening magazine and host of the radio show “You Bet Your Garden,” says that compost activators can be more helpful when the compost heap is almost finished, vs. using them at the beginning of the cycle.
Worms can significantly improve your composting effectiveness, just as worms in the garden can improve soil tilth. My open bin compost piles have a healthy supply of worms, probably because I occasionally add a shovel full of good garden soil to my bins.
Worm composting, or Vermicomposting, is a separate form of composting, which is discussed later in this article.

Size Matters – Smaller is Better
While it’s nice to have a larger pile, to develop a good heat core, and to produce a nice quantity of compost, the raw materials should be shredded whenever possible. Smaller particles are simply easier to mix and easier for the little microbes to digest. Of course, the micro bugs don’t eat the whole particle, but smaller particles of raw materials means that you’ll have more surface area for the millions of microbes to do their work.
So, in summary, you should aim for “big heap, small particles.”

Worm Composting (Vermicomposting)

Worm composting is the process of using worms in a container to digest kitchen vegetable scraps. The worms (red wigglers) eat the kitchen scraps and cast off their waste to produce a very rich fertilizer. Most worm composting is done indoors, usually in one’s basement. You’ll need to build or buy a worm composting “farm” if you want to dispose of your kitchen scraps by vermicomposting. You can buy a very effective worm composter and red worms from us.

What NOT to Do
Don’t add these ingredients to your compost pile:

Meat, Fish, animal fats – Unless you can completely bury them, you run the risk of attracting unwanted visitors to your compost. You might be able to add very small portions (remember the Native Americans used fish to fertilize their corn), but they must be completely buried, and adding them makes turning or mixing the working compost very problematic.

Shredded Newspapers or Office Paper – Recycle them instead. The paper very likely contains chemicals that are not good for your compost. Newspaper shredders were very popular years ago, but the risk of adding ink chemicals isn’t worth it. By all means, recycle your paper and save trees, but don’t put them in your compost pile.

Ashes from Your BBQ Grill – Another no-no. Wood ashes can be very useful in small quantities. And, wood ashes can be helpful for certain lawn applications. But, never put BBQ grill ashes into your compost pile.

Dog and Cat Feces – Are never good for your compost. There’s simply too much risk of adding nasty diseases, not to mention the unpleasant odor! Chicken, horse, cow, and rabbit manure is fine…in moderation. If you have access to these very high nitrogen sources, compost them. They’re too “hot” for most direct applications to the garden. But, remember your brown to green ratio of 4-to-1. And, chicken manure is green, in composting terms… even though it’s brown in appearance.

Be Careful When Adding These Ingredients!

Sawdust – Because of it’s very high carbon content, and its very small particle size, sawdust can overwhelm a compost pile. But, it can also be quite useful if you have an overload of green material. I add some from my woodworking shop when I have a lot of extra fruit in my pile at the end of the season. Avoid using sawdust that came from Black Walnut wood, as it contains a chemical that will stunt or prevent the growth of some plants, tomatoes in particular.

Wood Shavings, Chips, and Bark – Like sawdust, the carbon content can overwhelm, and shut down, an otherwise good compost mix. Set them aside, if possible, and let them decompose the old fashioned way, over time (“cold” decomposition).

When and How to Use Compost

Soil Building – Compost is the single best additive for good, even great, garden soil. It improves tilth, fertility, water retention for sandy soils, water drainage for clay soils, and improves your soil’s disease fighting characteristics. Add compost in spring and fall, and till it in.

Garden Fertilizer – Compost can be used throughout the season as a garden fertilizer. Simply side dress vegetables and flowers for a slow-release food source and improved disease prevention.

Lawn Feeding – Screened compost (compost that has been sifted to collect the smaller particles) can be applied as a lawn fertilizer throughout the season. It will provide a wonderful slow-release food as well as assist in lawn disease prevention. And, given that the nutrients aren’t as concentrated as in chemical lawn foods, you’ll avoid the stripes that can easily occur when incorrectly applying chemicals. You’ll avoid chemical run-off, and you’ll save money. Your lawn will be alive, with earthworms (natures aerators) and beneficial microbes.

Compost vs. Mulch – Mulch is any material that is applied to the garden’s surface to prevent weed germination and to reduce water evaporation. Compost will help build the soil, and it will help retain moisture; but, it won’t do a lot to prevent weeds. It’s an ideal growing medium; so, weeds are likely to be very comfortable in it. Use shredded leaves for mulch, or a combination of shredded leaves and lawn clippings. The combination of lawn clipping and shredded leaves creates an attractive mulch that won’t blow away (as leaves alone tend to do) and allows water penetration (as grass clippings alone tend to matt and repel water).

Potting Mix (seed starting, potted plants) – Compost can be used to create a very good seed starting mix, or it can be added to potting soil to create a nutrient-rich mixture. Most commercial potting mix is made from Canadian peat moss, which is virtually void of nutrients, so the addition of good compost provides a real boost. “hot” compost, which has been produced at higher temperatures, is less likely to contain a lot of weed seeds. However, some of the fungi in compost may contribute to “damping off” of seedlings when compost is used for seed starting. To be safe, you should consider “sterilizing” the compost before using it as a potting mix. You can sterilize compost by microwaving it, baking it in an oven, or pouring boiling water over it. Of the three methods, the boiling water treatment is the neatest and cleanest. Simply put the compost in a large flower pot and soak it with boiling water from a teapot or saucepan.

How to know compost is ready to use?
The point at which the compost is ready varies depending on how the compost will be used. In general, though, compost is ready when it’s dark and crumbly and mostly broken down with a pleasant, earthy, soil-like smell to it.

Unfinished Compost
For most uses it is acceptable to have some recognizable pieces of leaves or straw remaining in your compost. However, you should not use partly finished compost either as a seed starter mix or in areas where heavy nitrogen feeding plants are to be grown. Because unfinished compost is still actively breaking down, organisms in the material continue to take nitrogen from their surroundings. When mixed with the soil, the organisms will begin to draw the nitrogen from the soil in order to have the energy to continue the decomposition process. The result is a nitrogen defecit in the soil to the detriment of the plants in the area. Signs of nitrogen deficiency are stunted plant growth, yellowing leaves often near the bottom of the plant, light green or yellow foliage and weak stems.
Unfinished compost has also been known to damage or “burn” some plants and plant roots. This is a result of the heat given off by the decomposition process. When using unfinished compost it is a good idea to leave a few inches between the material and the stems of plants.
Unfinished compost has also been shown to inhibit the germniation of seeds. If unfinished compost is to be applied to areas where seeds will be sown it should be done six to eight weeks before seeding begins. Ideally, compost should be applied in the fall for an area that will be seeded the following spring.

Compost is unparalleled as a soil conditioner for:
·         house plants
·         lawns
·         trees & shrubs
·         annuals
·         perrenials
·         bulb plantings
·         flower beds
·         vegetable beds
·         potted plants / container plantings

Indoor Plants
Wait until your compost is completely finished before you use it for indoor plants. Established house plants will benefit from an inch of compost mixed into the top inch or two of soil.
Potted Plants / Container Plantings
Container plantings will benefit enormously from the addition of compost to the potting soil. Ensure that you use only mature compost in your containers to avoid burning any tender stems or roots.
Here is a good recipe for a compost based potting mix suitable for containers:
·         1 part compost
·         1 part sharp sand
·         1 part perlite
·         1 part peat or good soil
New planting areas
Give new planting areas a boost by digging in as much compost as you can spare (up to four inches) into the top six to twelve inches of garden soil.

Established planting areas
Established plantings will benefit from an inch or two of compost worked into the top few inches of soil. Be sure to leave a gap between the compost and the base of the plant to avoid burning the stems. The nutrients will find their way down to the plant roots.

Top dressing an Established Lawn
Spread up to ½” of finished compost over an established lawn. Compost used as a top dressing for lawns should be fully broken down. Running the compost through a fine compost screen is a good idea to keep out any chunky bits. Large areas should be covered with a fertilizer spreader but smaller areas may be spread by hand or with a shovel. Aerating your lawn prior to spreading compost will be of additional benefit, enabling the compost to filter down under the sod more easily.

For new lawns
Starting a new lawn is often challenging, particularly in areas with new homes where the builders have removed the original topsoil. The addition of compost to the existing soil can greatly improve the chance that a new lawn will take hold and thrive. Up to three inches of compost worked into the top six inches of soil will give the new lawn an excellent start. Either sod or grass seed can be placed on top of the amended soil.

Around trees and Shrubs
Spread a once to two inch layer over the soil surface starting from six inches from the trunk out to the edge of the dripline of the tree or shrub.
Making a compost pile is like making a giant layer cake! Well, not exactly but you will soon see what we mean.

But first, a few words about the amount of brown (carbon) material, versus green (nitrogen) material to put into your compost bin. Adding too much brown material will result in a pile that takes a long time to break down wheras too much green material will result in a slimy, smelly pile that doesn’t heat up effectively. In order for our pile to break down quickly and efficiently we need to provide just the right balance of brown and green materials.

The microorganisms in our compost bins need both carbon and nitrogen to thrive; carbon for energy and nitrogen for protein synthesis. For every one unit of nitrogen used by the bacteria they also consume about 30 units of carbon. And so in order to keep the bacteria working efficiently we need to create an environment for them that is approximately 30 parts carbon to 1 part nitrogen.

Unfortunately, most composting materials don’t have a carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 30:1. However, if we know the approximate C:N ratio of the materials we use in our compost, we can combine them so that the total mixture will be as near as possible to 30:1. This may sound a bit complicated but it really isn’t.

For an example:

We want to have a ratio of 30:1 in our compost bin but we only have access to the following ingredients:

·         dry autumn leaves (C:N of about 50:1)
·         kitchen scraps (vegetable & fruit peelings, coffee grounds etc: about 12:1)
·         grass clippings (about 20-30:1)
·         sawdust (fresh: 500:1, rotted 200:1)

Using different combinations of materials we will try to get close to the magic 30:1 ratio. If we use 1 part dry leaves to 1 part kitchen scraps we would have the following:

leaves 50/1 + kitchen scraps 12/1 = 62/2 = 31/1 or 31:1

If we use 1 part leaves, 1 part kitchen scraps and 1 part grass clippings we would have:
50/1 + 12/1 + 20/1 =82/3 = 27:1. Not too bad. In this example we can add some extra leaves or a handful or two of sawdust to bump up the ratio nearer to 30:1

Getting the mix of ingredients right is obviously not an exact science but a matter of trial and error. It’s something that gets easier after a few tries.

Making the Compost Pile
Start with a 4 inch layer of brush, twigs, hay or straw at the bottom of the compost bin. If you don’t have these materials, dry leaves will do. This first layer should be as coarse as possible to allow air to be drawn up into the pile from the bottom of the bin.

Then add a 4 inch layer of brown material, then a thin covering of finished compost or good garden soil. That’s one layer. The addition of compost or soil is to provide the necessary bacteria to get the compost to start breaking down. If we don’t add this layer the compost will still work, the addition just helps to speed things along.

Then add a 4 inch layer of green material topped with a thin layer of an activator. Activators are a source of both nitrogen and protein, ingredients that assist the organisms to break down the material. There are a number of good activators. Alfalfa meal works amazingly well. You can also use fresh manure, bone meal, blood meal, cottonseed meal, or even high-protein dry dog food.

Moisten each layer by misting it lightly with a garden hose. The key is to moisten the pile without making it too wet and soggy. Many people recommend adding moisture until the material is as moist as a wrung out sponge. This is far too wet. If you can squeeze water out of it, it’s far too wet. Adding some dry brown materials such as chopped leaves or hay will help if this happens.

If you live in a very arid climate, make an indentation in the top of the pile to collect rainwater and help keep the pile moist. Those living in rainy areas can cover the top of the pile with a tarpaulin or cover to keep it from becoming waterlogged.

Measuring Moisture in Your Compost Pile

Acheiving the correct moisture content is an important factor in keeping a compost pile working efficiently.

A moisture content of between 50-60% is desirable in an active compost pile but how many of us know how to measure moisture? Sure, there are highly technical and complicated ways to calculate moisture content but we are not interested in anything so technical and complicated.

Here is a simple, time-tested way to judge the moisture content in your compost. First, take a handful of compost from the center of your pile and squeeze it in your hand:

·         If you can squeeze water out of it, the compost is too wet
·         If the compost does not release water but crumbles apart when released, it’s too dry
·         If the compost does not release water but stays compacted, it’s just right

For those who feel the need for a slightly more technical method:

·         Weigh a sample of your compost
·         Dry the compost throroughly (you can use a conventional oven on low heat for a few hours)
·         Weigh the dried compost
·         Subtract the dry weight from the wet weight
·         Divide by the wet weight and multiply by 100. Voila! A more accurate reading of moisture content

Turning the Compost Pile
If the pile has been made correctly the internal temperature should reach about 140° F within 7-10 days. Ideally, the pile should heat up to 160° F so that any weed seeds and pathogens will be destroyed. A compost thermometer is a helpful tool to use at this stage. Since the bacteria need air to survive they will start to die off after a week or so as they start to use up the available air in the pile. This drop in the amount of bacteria will result in the compost pile cooling off a bit from it’s peak temperature. When this happens it’s time to turn the pile to get more air into it.

When turning your compost pile, move the drier material from the outer edges into the center of the pile and break up any clumps of leaves or grass clippings to ensure that you get as much air into the pile as you can. Moisten any of the materials as you go, if they seem too dry.

From this point on you should turn the pile every 14 days or so, or when you see the temperature fall from the next peak in termperature of about 110° – 120° F. In general, the more you turn the pile the faster you will have finished compost. If you’re using a plastic compost bin, an aerator tool will make the job of turning much easier. A garden fork is often the best tool for turning compost in an open style bin.

What should I do if I don’t have enough materials to fill the compost bin all at once?
When you can get your hands on some brown materials such as autumn leaves, save them in bags or a separate bin nearby your compost bin. When you have added enough green material to your compost bin to make a four inch layer, cover it with a 4 inch layer of the saved brown material. Then you can start building another green layer.

Green Composting Materials

Compared to brown materials, green compost materials are much higher in nitrogen. Nitrogen is an important element in amino acids and proteins, and is a vital protein source for the compost microbes, helping to speed up the process of decomposition.

Green materials that are very high in nitrogen should be used sparingly, especially fresh grass clippings.

Vegetable Peelings (12:1)

This category consists of any pieces of fruits and vegetables. Most of us have an endless supply of this type of material: potato peelings, apple cores, banana peels, any bits and pieces of uncooked vegetables that would otherwise have gone into the garbage bin! It is best to avoid using cooked vegetables in your compost because oils used in cooking will slow down decomposition and may attract rodents and other animals. One solution for those who wish to compost cooked vegetables is to use a closed plastic bin with wire mesh on the bottom.

Grass Clippings (20-30:1)

Grass clippings are very high in nitrogen. While that may seem like a good thing, and it is, there are also a few things to consider. First, it is often best to leave grass clippings on the lawn where they will decompose naturally and help to feed the soil.

If you do want to add grass clippings to your compost use them sparingly at first, adding a very thin layer on top of a layer of brown materials, or by mixing them thoroughly with other green materials. If they are applied too thickly they tend to form slimy clumps or mats that do not permit air circulation. The mats do not break down very well and and release an unpleasant smelling (but harmless) ammonia gas.

Fresh Manure (Various)

Poultry (7:1), Sheep (16:1), Horse (22:1), Cow (18:1)

Manure is a valuable ingredient in any compost pile. It contains a high level of nitrogen which will help to get the pile “cooking” quickly. It is acceptable to use manure from horses, cows, chickens, rabbits, sheep, goats and bats (guano) in your compost.

Important: Do not use manure from dogs, cats, pigs or humans in your compost pile or in your garden as they can contain harmful parasites and can cause diseases in humans. It is also advisable never to use any fresh manure in your garden unless it has been composted first.

“…would your coffee shop be willing to exchange used coffee grounds for some customer loyalty?”
If you don’t have access to manure, don’t worry. There are lots of alternative ingredients that are high in nitrogen that will give your compost pile a boost. Ingredients such as grass clippings, seaweed, and vegetable scraps will do the trick!

Coffee Grounds (20:1)

Coffee grounds are high in nitrogen and really help to heat up your compost. You can compost any kind of coffee grounds and if you use a paper filter just toss it in as well.

Many coffee shops collect their used coffee grounds and provide them free of charge to their customers. Check with your local coffee shop to find out if there is a program in your area. If there isn’t, why not get together with other local gardeners and petition the coffee shop that you patronise to start a program. Would your local coffee shop be willing to exchange their used coffee grounds for customer loyalty? You bet!

Coffee grounds can also be used directly in the garden as a mulch for acid loving plants such as Azelieas and Rhododendrons.

“If you live in an area where seaweed is available, consider yourself blessed…”

Seaweed (19:1)

If you live in an area where seaweed is available consider yourself blessed. You have an almost endless supply of nutrient-rich composting material. The addition of seaweed helps to get a compost pile to heat up due to it’s high nitrogen content. Most people rinse the seaweed before adding to the pile to remove excess salt.

Plants and Plant Cuttings (20-40:1)

Most plants and plant cuttings can be composted including annual weeds without mature seeds, any remains of spent or harvested plants and flower tops collected from deadheading.

Brown Composting Materials

Composting relies on the right ingredients to be successful. Brown materials such as leaves, straw, hay and sawdust are high in carbon and are a source of energy for the compost microbes.

Leaves (50-80:1)

Leaves are generally an excellent ingredient for your compost. Those living in areas with a large bounty of autumn leaves should make the most of it and find some neighbours willing to pass on their leaves. Many neighbours will do the raking for you if you agree to cart away the piles!

Living green leaves are considered “green materials”, wheras the dead, dry leaves that fall from the trees in autumn are seen as “brown materials”.

Autumn leaves are a great source of carbon and contain a surprising amount of nutrients that can be returned to the soil through compost. Although whole leaves are acceptable, it is better to shred the leaves before adding to the compost pile. Unshredded leaves tend to mat together excluding air from the pile. Leaves can be shredded in a number of ways:

·         using a commercial shredder or chipper
·         by pushing a lawn mower back and forth over a pile of leaves a few times. The use of a mulching mower blade will help.
·         shred leaves in a large garbage can with a lawn trimmer
·         Remember to wear eye protection regardless of the method you choose.

There are a few types of leaves that need special attention when composting:

walnut leaves contain a substance that inhibits the growth of many plants. As a result, walnut leaves should either be very thoroughly composted or omitted altogether
oak leaves take a very long time to break down because of their acidity and high levels of tannin. They will break down into a wonderful amendment for acid loving plants but it will take much longer than with other leaves. It is often a good idea to keep them separate to allow the main compost pile to finish sooner. A separate pile can then be made of oak leaves that can be used for plants that prefer an acid soil.
Waxy leaves also take longer to break down such as those of the holly, laurel, rose, pine and rhododendron. They are often best composted separately
Legume Hay (15:1) and Non-Legume Hay (30:1)

All types of spoiled hay make an excellent addition to the compost pile.

Straw: (80:1)

Straw provides less nitrogen than hay but contributes more than double the carbon. Straw decomposes quite slowly so it’s an especially good addition in areas with heavy clay soil. The remaining straw particles in the finished compost help to open up the soil structure.

Paper & Cardboard (150-200:1)

Paper such as newspaper, bills, paper towels, tissues can be composted but it should be shredded first. Avoid adding glossy and highly coloured papers. Stiff cardboard should be broken into small pieces or made into a slurry before it’s added to the pile.


Eggshells contain calcium and are a useful addition to the comost pile. The shells do take a long time to break down so it’s a good idea to crush them before adding. Do not include whole eggs in your compost, just the shells.

Tea Bags

Both black tea and herbal teas can be composted, whether loose leaves or in bags.

Sawdust* (400:1)

Sawdust and wood chips contain very low amounts of nitrogen and are very slow to break down in the compost pile. Use sawdust in very thin layers or mix thoroughly with a green material such as kitchen scraps or grass clippings. Large wood chips will take a very long time to break down and are often put to better use as a mulch.

*Be careful not to compost any sawdust or wood that has been “pressure treated” or otherwise treated with a chemical preservative. Pressure treated wood (often recognizible by a greenish tint) has been shown to leach arsenic into the soil when used for making playground equipment, compost bins and raised beds. For more information see the section on “what not to add to a compost pile”.

Wood Ashes (25:1)

Wood Ashes are an excellent source of calcium and potassium but are also very alkaline. Use sparingly to avoid high pH levels that limit microbial activity. Avoid composting charcoal briquettes as they take too long to break down. Also, avoid composting the ashes created from commercially made “firelogs” which often contain wax and other petroleum derivatives.

 Vermi composting is an eco-friendly technology.  Application of vermin-culture technology in the recycling of Sericultural waste and other wastes has a tremendous potential.  It is estimated that, by recycling (3) times in a year the farmer may get approximately 15 tones of vermin compost manure.
         Vermi composing is a technology of using earthworms as versatile natural bio-reactor for rapid conversion of any organic wastes under value added manure.  The earthworms feed on the wastes of organics origin, which is rich in NPK, micro nutrients, enzymes and vitamins suitable for crop growth besides number of useful micro organisms.
Cost details for construction of Four tanks with Shed

Amount (Rs.)
1000 No
8  Bags
2  cart loads
1 cart load
Stone poles or pillers
3  No ( 10’ height)
6  No (7’ height)
Nilgiri or Casurina poles ( for roofing )
16  No
Local wood reapers( to fix tiles) if tiles are used
24  No
800  No
Labour charges ( Carpentry & mason)


Cost of earthworms

For construction of 4 cement tanks with measurement of 3.00 mts x 1.5 mt  with a depth of 1.00 mt and the shed size is 8mt x 4 mt  with a height of 10 feet tiled or Asbestos sheets.

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Herbal & Ayurvedic herbs



The Bryonia laciniosa Seeds, which we provide are considered to be of optimum use and provide exceptional health benefits. It is chiefly used in small doses, as a remedy in acute and chronic serous maladies, in glandular enlargements, in scarlatina to lessen the tendency to aural complications that may terminate in otorrhoea and deafness, in chronic orchitis, in chronic rheumatic affections, pleuritic and pulmonic disorders, fevers, etc., and is also widely used to overcome constipation and regulate the bowels.

Common Name : Shivalingi Seed

Scientific Name : Bryonia lacinosa

 The medicinal benefits

 Shivlingi is hot, pungent and an alternative Given to females with jaggery for birth of male child

A remedy in acute and chronic serous maladies

Herb description

 An annual scandent herb

Stem grooved and glabrous

Marod Phali (Helicteres Isora)


English Name: East Indian Screw Tree, Nut Leaved Screw Tree

Botanical Name: Helicteres isora

Description: Helicteres isora which is commonly known as Marod Phali in Hindi,Indian Screw Tree, Nut Leaved Screw Tree in English.

Uses: The roots and stem barks are expectorant, demulcent, astringent,and constipating.

They are useful in colic, scabies,gastric problems, diabetes, diarrhea and dysentery. The powdered seeds are used to cure ulcers in ears, dysentery and stomachache.Uses: Mucuna pruriens seed powder is used as an aphrodisiac to improve the quality of the sperms, their total count. They are also used for improving physical stamina and strength.According to Ayurveda,seeds are astringent, laxative, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, alexipharmic and tonic.It improves sexual health.It is also used in intestinal worms and colic

Uses:  Shilajit works as a powerful anti oxidant thereby delaying aging. It is extensively used for general physical strengthening, anti-aging, blood sugar stabilization,injury healing, urinary tract rejuvenation. It also enhanced brain functioning potency, bone healing, kidney rejuvenation. It improves immune system,arthritis, hypertension, obesity and many other diseases.Shilajit is also effective in piles and fistula related problems.It works as an aphrodisiac agent and helps in increasing sperm count. It is use to maintain physical,sexual and mental strength and to maintain youth and long life.

Effective in treating kidney, and lower back pain Threaten abortion, Leucorrhoea, Seminal debility Efficient in treating dryness of the lungs and throat, consumptive diseases  (lingering cough, dry cough), tuberculosis and blood- tinged sputum

The juice of the nut wall is known in the trade as Bhiloawan Shell Liquid, is rich in phenols.

Nagarmotha (Cyperus Rotundus)


English name: nut grass

Botanical name : cyperus rotundus

Indian name – mustak, nagarmotha, motha, mustaka

part used: rhizome/ rootsfamily: cyperaceae

description: the plant is considered an invasive weed; it has been called “the world’s worst weed. ” the plant requires sun and moist conditions, though it grows in sandy soil  (one of the old chinese names for it was shacao, meaning sand weed), as well as in loamy moist fields and in tropical rainforests. It has a vast growing range, crossing the globe and particularly noted in the pacific islands  (where its leaves are used for weaving) as well as along coastal regions. It is especially prevalent in southern india, where its essential oil is used in perfumery. As an invasive weed, it is considered troublesome in 92 countries and adversely affects more than 50 crops, including sugar cane, corn, cotton, rice, and many vegetables. Cyperus grows rapidly and fills the soil with its tangle of roots and rhizomes; this one species  (c. Rotundus) can produce up to 40,000 kg/hectare of underground plant material.


1. Nut grass is recommended for fevers and obesity in ayurveda

2. It is very much used in chinese medicine. Cyperus is a qi-moving medicinal that can also enter the blood aspect; it is traditionally called a qi-in-blood medicinal. It rectifies qi and regulates menstruation, and it is effective for signs such as menstrual irregularities, overdue periods, and abdominal pain during menstruation that is due to liver qi depression in emotionally inhibited women.

3. Nut grass is a pungent bitter-sweet herb that relieves spasms and pain, acting mainly on the digestive system and uterus. They are used internally in the treatment of digestive problems and menstrual complaints.

4. The plant is rated 8th amongst 250 potential antifertility plants in china.

 Chitrakmool (Plumbago Zeylanica)


Botanical Name: Plumbago Zeylanica

English Name : Wild leadwort.

Indian Name : ChitramoolaPart Used : Root

Family: Plumbaginaceae

Description: Chitrakmool offered by us is a natural digestive herbs used for digestive, nervous and female reproductive system. The parts of this plant are used for the production of herbal powders. These herbs are widely used for indigestion, gas, hemorrhoids, dysmenorrheal, rheumatism, promotes sweating and small doses stimulate the central nervous system


1. Chitrak is used in treating intestinal troubles, dysentery, leucoderma, inflammation, piles, bronchitis, itching, diseases of the liver, and consumption.

2. Leaves of this herb work well for treating laryngitis, rheumatism, diseases of the spleen, ring worm, scabies, and it acts as an aphrodisiac.

3. A tincture of the root bark is used as an anti-periodic.

4. Chitrak root helps improve digestion and it stimulates the appetite.

5. Chitrak root is also an acro-narcotic poison that can cause an abortion.

Bael (Aegle Marmelos)


English Name: Apple Wood

Botanical Name: Aegle Marmelos

Family Name : Rutaceae

Common Name : Bael, Quince, Apple Wood, Holy Fruit Tree

Part Used : Bark,fruit Pulp, Leaves.Habitat : Found all over decidious forests in india.

Product offered : Fruits, Leaves, Bark, Fruit pulp

Description: Aegle Marmelos commonly known as Bael, bhel, bilwa, belaphal, Bengal Quince.Bael is a very good source of protein.Bael leaves, fruits and root can be used as tonic and coolant with antibiotic properties

Uses: Fresh half-ripe Bael fruit is mildly astringent and is used for dysentery and diarrhea.Bael leaves are extremely useful for treating Diabetes, jaundice, cholera and asthma. Bael fruits are valuable for its rich nutritive, sweet, aromatic mucilage and pectin contents – very good for all kinds of stomach disorders. Bael Fruits are very useful in chronic diarrhea and dysentery,

Uses : It is antiscorbutic, carminative, alternative and nutritive. It is used in constipation, dysentery and diarrhoea. It is aromatic, astringent, cooling, febrifuge and also acts as tonic for heart and brain. Unripe & half-ripe fruits are used to improve appetite and digestion.Leaves are used for treating diabetes, jaundice, cholera, asthma and ophthalmia.

Gokhru (Tribulus Terrestris)


English Name: Small Caltrops

Botanical Name : Tribulus Terrestris

Family Name : Zygophllaceae

Common Name : Land Caltrops, Puncture Vine, Gokhru

Part Used : Whole Plant, Seeds

Description: This trailing herb is found in sandy soil throughout India, and Sri Lanka. Gokhru flowers are bright yellow in colour and fruits are green to yellow in colour. Fresh fruit and shade dried fruit, are used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Root of Gokhru is also used for medicinal purposes in Ayurveda. A species of the tropical regions found to be distributed throughout India from sea level to 3500 m. This species is native to the Mediterranen region, globally distributed in the tropics. Within India,it is found throughout in sandy soil.The whole plant of Goksura is used in the form decoction and powder to treat consumption, calculi, intrinsic haemorrhage, dysuria,to promote hair-growth, arthritis rejuvinative and as an aphrodisiac.

Uses : 

1.Gokhru is indicated in Ayurveda for the treatment of urinary disorders, kidney diseases, diseases of the genito-urinary system.

2.Roots and fruits are sweet, cooling, diuretic, aphrodisiac, emollient, appetizer, digestive, anthelmintic, expectorant, anti-inflammatory,laxative, cardiotonic, styptic and tonic.

3.They are useful in strangury, dysuria, renal and vesical calculi, anorexia, dyspepsia, helminthiasis, cough, asthma, inflammations, cardiopathy, spermatorrhoea, anaemia, scabies, ophthalmia and general weakness.

4. In Ayurvedic system of medicine Gokhru is indicated for use for regulation of heart functions, reduction of inflammation, indigestion, chronic cough and asthma also.

5. In Ayurveda it is considered that Gokhru helps to improve vitality and vigor.

Nirmali (strychnos Potatorum)

English Name: Clearing Nut Tree

Botanical Name: Strychnos potatorum Linn.

Comman Name: Nirmali,Chilladabeeja, Chilu,Tetamkotai, Tetankotai, Tetta, Tettamaram, Tettran,Katak, Kataka, Kataka Ambuprasada Family: Loganiaceae  (Strychnaceae).

Parts Used: Seeds, roots and fruits

Description:  The nuts of this species of Strychnos are very largely used in some parts of India for clearing muddy water, and are stated to have found their way into American commerce.The fruit is also employed by the native practitioners of Hindostan, under the name of nirmali, as an emetic and in dysentery. They do not contain strychnine. In clearing water, one of the dried nuts is rubbed hard for a short time around the inside of the earthen water pot; on settling, the water is left pure and tasteless. The seeds contain a large quantity of an albuminous principle, upon which their virtues probably depend. The tree, which grows to a very large size, produces a shining, black, one-seeded berry  (that of the nux vomica being many-seeded). The seeds are described  as broadly lenticular, about half an inch in diameter and a quarter of an inch in thickness, of a dirty whitish-gray color, and covered with a thick coating of delicate appressed hairs.


1. Seeds are used to purify water.

2. Seeds are rich source of polysaccharide gum suitable for use in paper and textile industries.

3. The fruits are emetic, diaphoretic alexiteric etc. According to Unani system of medicine, seeds are bitter, astringent to bowels, aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic and good for liver, kidney complaints, gonorrhea.

Nishod (operculina Turpethum)


English Name :Indian Jalap

Botanical Name : Operculina Turpethum

Indian Name : Nishoth lakdi/ Pitohari

Family: Convolvulaceae

Part Used: ROOT

Description: Operculina Turpethum or Nisoth is commonly used medicinal herb. The main part of plant that is used as medicine is its root. The plant has laxative property and thus effective in curing constipation, relieving flatulence and colic condition. It is also useful in periodic fevers as it helps in reducing body temperature. it is also effective in obesity because it decreases the excessive body fat. It is also used in the treatment of anaemia in the combination with other herbs. This herb is used for the treatment of many other diseases like arthritis, dropsy, gout, jaundice.


1. It is used in periodic fevers.

2. In the treatment of anaemia accompanied by splenomegaly, it is used along with other therapy.

3. It is also used to relieve flatulence and colic. In the treatment of obesity.

Tesu-phhol (butea Monosperma)


Botanical Name : Butea Monosperma

Indian Name : Palash, Dhak, Palah or Tesu,ChamataFamily:Fabaceae

Part Used: Flower,Fruit,Stem

Description: The tesu flowers are traditionally used for colour-play in the spring festival of Holi. Tesu flowers are boiled in water to give a fragrant, deep yellow water which has medicinal properties and prevents skin problems in the coming summer.For Holi celebrations, Vrindavan’s Radha Vallabh temple uses warm tesu water from huge silver cauldrons, and brass water sprinklers – pichkaris to spray colour on everyone in the temple courtyard.

Gorakhmundi (sphaeranthus Indicus)


Botanical name : sphaeranthus indicus

english name : east indian globe thistle

indian name : gorakmundi,mahamundi, mundi, hapus,kottak aranthai,mirangani,ghundi,khamadrus

part used : fruit,root, bark, leaves, flowers, and seedsfamily: asteraceae

Description: an aromatic herb, with purple flower heads. Flowers are credited with alterative, depurative, and tonic properties.  the flowers contain albumins, a semi-drying fatty oil, reducing sugars, tannins, mineral matter, a volatile oil, and a glucoside. A spreading aromatic herb with spreading glandular hairy stem and branches with purple or pink flowers. Flowers are credited with alterative, depurative, and tonic properties. The flowers contain albumins, a semi-drying fatty oil, reducing sugars, tannins, mineral matter, a volatile oil, and a glucoside.


1. Useful in fever, diabetes, urinary ailments and dermatoses.

2. It is a blood purifier and stimulant to the heart, hence used in cardiac debility, associated with edema. 3. The plant is used both, internally as well as externally. The application of the paste of its whole plant externally is beneficial in conditions associated with edema and pain, like arthritis, filariasis, gout and cervical adenopathy.  internally mundi is useful in vast range of diseases. The leaves juice mixed with black pepper powder, is an effective remedy for migraine.

4. It relieves the blocked phlegm in bronchial asthma, cough and eases the problem.

5. It is a drug of choice for vata diseases. Mundi is extremely useful in epilepsy, mental debility and as a nervine tonic.

6. The medicated oil of its roots is salutary as an aphrodisiac. The fresh juice of roots is given along with equal amount of buttermilk in treating tumours.

Indarjow (meetha) wrightia Tinctoria


Botanical Name : Wrightia Tinctoria

Family Name : Apocynaceae

Common Name : Pala Indigo Plant, Dyers’s Oleander.

Part Used : Bark, Seeds

Habitat : Throughout india upto 1200 m.Product offered : Seeds

Uses : The leaves are acrid, thermogenic, anodyne and hypotensive and are very useful in odontalgia, vitiated conditions of vata and hypertension. The seeds are bitter, astringent, acrid, carminative, constipating, depurative, anthelmintic and febrifuge. They are useful in vitiated conditions of Pitta and Kapha, dyspepsia etc.

Its pungent fresh leaves quickly relieve toothaches. Leaves, flowers and fruits are source of a kind of indigo called pala-indigo. White, close-grained wood looks like ivory and is much used for carving and wood-turning. In piles, fever, diarrhoea, roundworm and colic.

Hindi  (9) bichu, hathajori, hatha-jori, bichhwa, bagh nakhi, billi, bichhu ankadi, bichhu-ankadi, bichhu-butti Hindi  (18) dudhi, gode indrajava, indarjou, khirni, mitaindrajau, mitha indrajava, mitha indarjou, mithaindarjou, kalainderjau,

Harra  (Terminalia Chebula)


Terminalia Chebula  (Harra)

Botanical Name : Terminalia Chebula

Family Name : Combretaceae

Common Name : Myrobalan, Hardad, Chebulic Myrobalan

Part Used : Fruits, Roots, Bark

Uses : It is astringent, purgative, stomachic and laxative. It is useful in asthma, piles and cough. It is also useful in healing of wounds and scalds. It is used as gargle against inflammation of mucous membrane of mouth. It is used in tanning of leather and purification of petroleum. It is an effective purgative and helps in removing toxins and fats from the body resulting in their reduced absorption. Used in all sorts of eye disorders like inflammation, conjunctivitis and is used as a wash.Pharmacology : Fruit contains a constituent which has a wide antibacterial and antifungal spectrum.and also inhibits growth of E.coli, the most common organism responsible for urinary tract infection. The fruit pulp exhibits laxative properties.

Kuda Bark (holarrhena Antidysenterica)


Botanical name : holarrhena antidysenterica

family name : apocynaceae

common name : : tillicherry bark, conessi, kuruchi, kutaja, kura, kuda,dhudi hat, karchi, kari, karra, karva-indarjou, karvaindarjau, kaura, kaureya, kora, kuar, kura, kureya, sweetwood, liquorice, yastimadhu, jashti-madhu.

Part used : bark, leaves.

Description: kataja plant is fabled to have sprung from the drops of amrta or elixir of life, which fell on the ground from the bodies of rama’s monkeys, who were restored to life by indra. The seeds of kutaja are called as indra’d seeds – indrayava . Caraka has described multiple used of the plant.  the pods have stanyasodhana lactodepurant, indrayava have amapacaka – digests the ama and asthapanopaga – adjunct to decoction enema, properties.  whereas kutaja in general, is said to possess vamaka – emetic and arsoghna – anti haemorrhoidal qualities. Susruta mentions indrayava as stanyasodhana – lactodepurant and kutaja as sukra sodhana – sperm purifier. Vagbhata has specified it as the best anti-diarrhea.

Uses :

1. Application of holarrhena antidysenterica useful in arthritis & osteoarthritis.

2. The holarrhena antidysenterica bark is used in chest affections and as a remedy in diseases of the skin and spleen holarrhena antidysenterica is a well known herb for amoebic dysentery and other gastric disorders

3. The seeds and the skin of the bark is used for medicinal purpose. Kutaja plant is used both internally as well as externally. Externally, to promote healing, the wounds are cleansed with the decoction of its skin.

 4. Holarrhena antidysenterica is one of the best known herb used for diarrhoea. In chronic diarrhoea & to check blood coming from stool.

5. The holarrhena antidysenterica bark is useful in treatment of piles, skin diseases and biliousness.

6. The holarrhena antidysenterica bark is given with cow milk. The fresh juice of holarrhena antidysenterica bark is considered good to check the diarrhoea.

Varunchhal (crataeva Nurvala)


English name: three leaved caper

botanical name:crataeva nurvala

family: capparidaceae

common name: varun

parts used: bark, leaves and root bark

description: crataeva nurvala is a moderate sized deciduous tree with gray and smooth horizontally wrinkled bark with trifoliate leaves.  its flowers are white or cream in color and are present as many flowered terminal corymbs. Fruit is multiple seeded in the form of ovoid berries.  seeds are embedded in yellow fleshy pulp.


1. The skin, roots and leaves of varuna have great medicinal value.

2. The pulp of leaves is applied on abdomen in splenic enlargement, with great benefit.

3. The decoction of leaves given along with ghee relieves flatulence and abdominal pain.

4. The decoction of skin of varuna alone is used as blood purifier in gout, internal abscess, adenitis.

5. Varuna is commonly used as a bitter tonic. The fresh juice of leaves is useful as a tonic. In enlarged prostate, strangury and urinary tract infections the decoction of its bark is rewarding.

Lasuda (cordia Dichotoma)


English name: indian cherry

botanical name : cordia dichotoma

family name : boraginaceae

common name : : gumberry, labeda, lasora,vad gundo,goborhut, bahubara, bird lime tree,indian cherry, clammy cherry, fragrant manjack,boch,lamkelaba,bankanakkera, chinna-nakkeru, botgiri,naruvili, citam,gunda.

Part used : seeds, leaves.

Description: indian cherry is a small to moderate-sized deciduous tree with a short bole and spreading crown. The stem bark is greyish brown, smooth or longitudinally wrinkled. Flowers are short-stalked, bisexual and white in colour, appear in loose corymbose cymes.  the flowers open only at night. The fruit is a yellow or pinkish-yellow shining globose or ovoid drupe seated in a saucer-like enlarged calyx.  it turns black on ripening and the pulp gets viscid. Indian cherry  grows in the sub-himalayan tract and outer ranges, ascending up to about 1500 m elevation. It is found in a variety of forests ranging from the dry deciduous forests of rajasthan to the moist deciduous forests of western ghats and tidal forests in myanmar. In maharashtra, it grows in moist monsoon forest also.

Uses :

1. The seed kernel of c. Dichotoma contains a high proportion of fatty oils and proteins  (46 and 31%, respectively) which has potential as cattle feed fuel.

2. The wood is used to make agricultural implements.

3. The bark is medicinal and several chemicals have been identified; allantoin, beta -sitosterol.

4. Immature gunda berries are used as a vegetable and to make pickles after removing the stone and sticky white pulp. The sticky pulp is used to make glue.

Ratti (abrus Precatorius)


Botanical Name : Abrus Precatorius

Family Name : Fabaceae

Common Name : : Rosary Pea, Jequerity, Crab’s Eye, Precatory Bean, Tento Muido, Cain Ghe, Graines Reglisse, Weesboontje, Rakat, Jequerit, Liane Reglisse,Paratella, Paternoste

Part Used : Seeds, Leaves.

Description:  Abrus precatorius is a legume with long, pinnate-leafleted leaves. The seeds of Abrus precatorius are much valued in native jewelry for their bright coloration. Apart from this it finds variety of uses in the form of traditional medicine. However, abrus precatorius seeds contain a toxic element called Abrin, which is only harmful when swallowed.

Uses :

1.Seeds are abortifacient, anodyne, aphrodisiac, antimicrobial, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, purgative, refrigerant and sedative.

2.Seeds are highly poisonous. Roots are used for gonorrhoea, jaundice and haemoglobinuric bile.

3.Powdered seeds are said to disturb the uterine functions and prevent conception in women.

4.The oil extracted from seeds is said to promote the growth of human hair.



Ratan jot is an herb grown in kashmir. The root is ground to a powder and used as a natural rich red food color in india

ratan jot is the original spice responsible for red color of rogan josh, and tandoori chicken.

it is almost becoming rare and being replaced by standard red food colors.

Amla (Emblica Officinalis)


Botanical Name : Emblica Officinalis

English Name : Indian gooseberry  

Family Name : Euphorbiaceae

Common Name : Gooseberry, Phyllanthus Emblica, Emblica, Indian Gooseberry, Amla

Part Used : FruitHabitat : Northern and south western india.Product offered : Fruits, Seeds

Description: Our Its cultivation is common in India found in various parts of India.The powder of the dried amla fruit is an effective remedy of hyperacidity,ulcers and blood impurities. It is also used both internally and externally as a decoction and paste. Amla is a wonder herb with numerous indication.

Uses :

1. Emblica Officinalis or Amla is aperient, carminative, diuretic, aphrodasiac, laxative, astringent and refrigerant.

2. It is the richest known source of vitamin ‘C’. It is useful in anaemia, jaundice, dyspepcia, haemorrhage disorders, diabetes, asthma and bronchitis.

3. It cures insomnia and is healthy for hair. It is considered as one of the most rejuvenating drugs, imparting a long healthy life and weight gain. It also acts as an antacid and antitumorganic agent.

Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri)



Hindi Name: Brahmi

English Name: Brahmi

Botanical Name: Bacopa Monniera

Family Name : Scrophulariaceae

Indian Name : Gotu kala,Herpestis Monnieria, Thyme Leaved Gratiola, Brahmi

Part Used : whole plant

Description: Bacopa monniera, is a small, creeping herb with numerous branches, succulent, rooting at the nodes, with numerous prostrate branches, each 10-30 cm long. Brahmi leaves are petiole, oblong, sessile, and fleshy. Flowers are purple in color; axillary, solitary with peduncles. In India and the tropics it grows naturally in wet soil, shallow water, and marshes. The herb can be found at elevations from sea level to altitudes of 4,400 feet, and is easily cultivated if adequate water is available. Flowers and fruit appear in summer and the entire plant is used medicinally. Bacopa monnieri known as Coastal Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola, Water hyssop. In the folklore of Indian medicine, Brahmi has been used traditionally as brain or nerve tonic. It is a potent nervous tonic and is anti anxiety agent.


1. Brahmi plant has a number of uses in Ayurveda. It has antioxidant properties.Brahmi is a well-known memory booster.

2. It improves intellect, consciousness, and mental acuity. Calms the mind and promotes relaxation. It Decreases anxiety, restlessness. Most commonly used to improve mental alertness, and enhance learning.

3. It is diuretic, cardiac, nervine and tonic. It is reported to improve intellect, treatment of asthma, hoarseness, insanity, epilepsy.

4. It is a potent nervous tonic and is anti anxiety agent. It is considered good for heart. It helps protect the stomach from ulcer formation.

5. It is promising blood purifier and useful in diarrhea and fevers.

Ajmod (Apium Graveolens)


Botanical Name :Apium  Graveolens

English Name : Celery

Indian Name : Ajamoda

Part Used: Fruit

Description:  Celery is an important salad plant. In india, the leaves are not so popular, but the root and the seeds are commonly used in ayurvedic medicine.The word celery is derived from latin, celery which means quick acting, and presumably refers to its therapeutic propertiesuses: celery an important medicinal plant. It has a well-balanced content of the basic minerals, vitamins and nutrients,hormones and essential oil. The seeds of celery relieve flatulence, increase the secretion and discharge of urine and act as an aphrodisiac. They are tonic, laxative and stimulant. They treat spasmodic disorders. Celery is useful in the treatment of arthritis

1. The juice of celery in combination with carrot juice should be taken in the treatment of blood disorders.

2. The seeds of celery are an effective remedy for indigestion. A teaspoon of the seeds soaked in a glass of buttermilk for 5 to 6 hours should be ground in the same buttermilk mixture. It gives relief from indigestion.

3. The powder of the dried root of the herb is an effective tonic in general debility or weakness and malnutrition. One teaspoon of this powder mixed with a tablespoon of honey is taken twice daily in such conditions.

Gurmar (gymnema Sylvestre)

English name : suger destroyer, periploca of the the wood

botanical name : gymnema sylvestre

family name : asclepiadaceae

common name : periploca of the woods, gudmar

part used : whole plant, leave

Description: the leaves and root of mesasrngi is used in the form of powder, paste and decoction to treat inflammation of glands, enlargement of spleen, indigestion, constipation, jaundice, piles, sinusitis, cough, respiratory diseases, feeling of heaviness in head, urinary stone, malarial fevers. A vulnerable species is a slow growing, perennial,medicinal woody climber found in central and peninsular india. It is a potent antidiabetic plant and used in folk,ayurvedic and homeopathic systems of medicine.

Uses :

1. The plant is acrid, anti-inflammatory, anodyne, liver tonic,emetic and diuretic. It is useful in hepatosplenomegaly, dypepsia, constipation, jaundice, halminthiasis, cardiopathy and amenorrhoea.

2. The fresh leaves when chewed have the remarkable property of paralysing the sense of taste for sweet and bitter substance for some time.

3. It lowers blood sugar level and is good for the treatment both types of diabetes.

4. The herb is useful for stimulating the heart; it increases urine secretion.

5. This plant is also used for controlling obesity in the form of gymnema tea.

6. Powder of the leaves is used in diabetes.

Bhringraj (Eclipta Prostrata)


English Name: Thistles

Botanical Name: Eclipta alba

Hindi: Vidarikand,Sural, Bilaikand, Bharda, Tirra, Bankumra

Description: Pueraria Tuberosa, commonly known as kudzu, is a climber with woody tuberculated stem. It is a climbing, coiling and trailing vine with large tuberous roots Bhringraj is one of the ayurvedic herbs used as an ayurvedic tonic for treatment of Hair loss, premature greying.It is used for the treatment of devitalized hair.

Uses: 1.The herb reduces vata and normalizes kapha, which increases shukra dhatu. This shukra dhatu helps in increasing hard erections, libido and sexual energy.

2. Bhringraj is used as a rejuvenative medicine in ayurveda. It is used as a tonic for keeping the body healthy and fit.

3. It has many uses. Mainly, it is used in hair treatment. It is also used in treatment of skin diseases, eye infections, hyperacidity, anemia.

4. It is also used to relieve post delivery uterine pain. Intestinal worms in infants leaves extract should be given with honey. It has antiaging properties.

5.Kudzu is widely used in skin diseases that cause discoloration.6.It revitalizes the whole body and increases muscle bulk.

Arjun Bark (Terminalia Arjuna)

Botanical Name : Terminalia Arjuna

Family Name : Combretaceae

Common Name

Hindi Name: Arjun Bark

English Name: Arjuna Herb

Arjuna, Arjuna Herb, Arjuna Root

Part Used : BarkHabitat : Through out india.

Product offered : BarkUses : The bark is astringent, sweet, acrid, cooling, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, urinary astringent, expectorant, alexiteric and is useful in fractures, ulcers, cirrhosis of the lever, hyperhidsis, otalgia and hypertension. A decoction of the bark is used as wash in ulcers. It improves cardiac muscle function and pumping action of the heart.

Kapurkachri (hedychium Spicatum)


English name : kaempferia

botanical name : hedychium spicatum

family name : zingiberaceae

part used: roots/powderindian name : hedichium, kapur kachri

habitat,karchura : grows in sub tropical himalayas.

Description: it is an annual perennial herb growing to 1. 5m by 0. 7m. It has a horizontal root- stock, and tuberous rootfibres, leaves are 30 cms or more in length.  inflorescence is spiked. Flowers ascending and dense yellow coloured. It bears flowers in october.  the flowers are hermaphrodite  (has both male and female organs). Capsule is globose. This species occurs in parts of western and central himalayas between an altitude range of 1000-2250 m.


1. Used in nausea, bronchial asthama, halitosis and vomitting. Also useful in diminished apetite, hiccups, local inflamation etc.

2. Used in nausea, bronchial asthma, halitosis and vomiting.

3. Useful in diminished appetite, hiccups, local inflammation etc.

4. its rhizome is used for treatment of asthma and internal injury.

5. It is used in the treatment of indigestion and poor circulation due to thickening of the blood.

6. The root stalk is useful in local inflammations, nausea, asthma, bronchitis, hiccups and in pain.

LODH (Symplocos Racemosa)

English Name : Lodh Bark

Botanical Name : Symplocos Racemosa

Indian Name : Lodh,Lodhar,Lodhra,Hura,Pathani,Balalodduginamara/Pachetta,Lothi



Description: Globally the species is distributed in the Indo-Malesian region. In India it is distributed in the Western Peninsula region, North Eastern India and Sub-Himalayan tracts. This species is distriubted in  Indo-Malaysia. Within India, it is found in North and East India and in the Western Peninsula.A decoction of the bark was used for gargling when the gums were spongy and bleeding.


1. It is used in treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and liver disorders.

2. Bark of Lodhra is useful in bowel complaints such as diarrhoea, dysentry etc and also in dropsy, eye diseases, liver complaints, fever, ulcer, scorpion sting etc.

3. In Bombay the bark is often employed in the preparation of plasters and is supposed to promote resolution of inflammatory masses.

4 .In fever, dysentery and liver complaints, It is used in the form of compound decoction and infusion.

5. In bleeding gums and all, a paste composed of Lodhra bark, rasot, tubers of cyperus rotundus and honey is applied to the gums.

6. It is one of the constituent of a plaster used to promote maturation of boils and other malignant growth.

Sarpgandha (Rauvolfia Serpentina)




English Name: Serpentina,Rauvolfia root

Botanical Name: Rauvolfia Serpentina

Indian Names:Arachoritita,Chandrabhaga, Chota-chand,Sanochado,Sarpagandha, Chandrika, Patalguruda Family: Apocynaceae

Habitat: Moist forests shady places near rain-forest.

Useful Parts: Roots and leaves.

Description: The botanical name of sarpagandha is Rauwolfia serpentine. Mainly it is widely used in treatment of High Blood Pressure.The juice of the leaves of Sarpagandha cures opacity of the cornea.


1. The sarpagandha have great medicinal value.It is beneficial in the treatment of hypertension, fever.

2. psychological disorders and worm infestations.In serpant bite, the powder of sarpagandha roots is given orally, as well as, applied on the site of bite.Specially in snake bite,it is extensively used as antidote.

3.High blood pressure:  The Rauvolfia herb is the best remedy for high blood pressure and it has been adapted by medical fraternity in most countries.  Those alkaloids which have a direct effect on hypertension have been isolated in it and are widely used by the practitioners of modern medicine. But they have certain unpleasant side effects which the drug taken in its raw form, does not have. Half a teaspoon of its powder taken thrice a day is effective in relieving hypertension.

4. In itching skin: It relieves itching in urticaria. One gram of powdered root can be taken with water.

RITHA (Sapindus Mukorossi)




English Name: Soapnut

Botanical Name: Sapindus Mukorossi

Indian name:Ritha, Reetha, Aritha, Dodan, Doadni, Doda, Kanma and Thali,Soap Nut, Soapberry, Soap Berry, Washnut, and Wash Nut

Family: Sapindaceae – Soapberry

Part Used : Soapnuts, Soapnut Shells, Soapnut Shells Powder

Description: Ritha is a common tree in Shivalik Hills and the outer Himalayas of Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Jammu & Kashmir. The dried fruit of Ritha is most valuable part of the plant. Its fleshy portion contains saponin, which is a good substitute for washing soap and is as such used in preparation of quality shampoos, detergents, etc. The bark of Ritha is shinning gray and fairly smooth when the plant is young. It is dark gray when the plant approaches maturity. Ritha leaves are long stalked odd pinnate. In fact the skin of the fruit is highly valued by the rural folks as a natural produced shampoo for washing their hair.


1. They also use these for washing woolen clothes. The fruit has considerable importance for its ayurvedic medicinal value.

2. Soapnut powder is used to cleanse hair, skin and laundry.

3. The pulp of the fruit contains a high level of natural foaming agents. This extract can be used to wash skin and hair.

4. Useful for treating a number of diseases like common cold, pimples, epilepsy, constipation, nausea.

5. It is an important herb that is used in the treatment of contaminated soil. Moreover, it has also been used for washing and bleaching cardamoms, further helping in improving the latter’s color and flavor.

SHANKHPUSPHI (Convolvulus Pluricaulis)



Botanical Name : Convolvulus pluricaulis

English name:Bindweed,aloe weed

Indian Name: Shankhpushpi,Mangalya kusuma


Part Used :Whole plant

Description :Shankhapushpi or Convolvulus pluricaulis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient system of Indian medicine, as a rasayana which is mainly advocated for use in mental stimulation and rejuvenation therapy.

Uses : The plant is reported to be a prominent memory-improving drug. It is used as a psycho-stimulant and tranquilizer. It is reported to reduce mental tension. The ethanolic extract of the plant reduces total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and non-esterified fatty- acids.


1. It is useful for treating a number of diseases like common cold, pimples, epilepsy, constipation, nausea, etc.

2. It is also used as expectorant in small doses.

3. Shankhpushpi is a rasayana specially promoting intellect.

4. In Insomonia & Delirium – Powder of Shankhpushpi should be given with cumin & milk.

5. In Chronic cough & Asthma – Smoking of Shankhpushpi leaves is useful.

6. In Haematemesis – Expressed juice of Shankhpush

KAUNCH SEED (Mucuna Pruriens)


English name: cowhage, cow itch,velvet bean

botanical name: mucuna pruriens

description: mucuna pruriens or kaunch beej commonly known as cowhage, cow itch is one of the popular medicinals of india. It is one of the main constituents in many indigenous drug formulations. All parts of cowhage posses valuable medicinal properties. Mucuna pruriens is a legume, and as a legume it’s a rich source of tocopherol, or vitamin ‘e. ‘ vitamin ‘e’ has a variety of beneficial effects. It is very beneficial in parkinsons disease.


1. Plant mucuna pruriens as a foliage crop to fertilize and protect fallow fields.

2. Soak the beans and baby plant shoots for at least 48 hours before cooking, changing the soak water several times to remove the toxic compounds like levodopa.  it can be toxic if not treated and prepared properly.

3. Feed the beans and seeds to multi-stomached animals such as cows for a protein and fiber rich food source.

Chiraita (swertia Chirata)


English name: chiretta botanical name: swertia chirata

hindi names: kariyatu,kirayat, bhu nimb,nelaberu,nelavepu, kiriyattu,bhuchiretta

parts used: whole plant

Description: swertia chirata known as chirayata in india is a herb indigenous to temperate himalayas at altitudes above 4000 feet from kashmir but also found in other parts of country.  according to ayurveda this herb is tikta-rasam, metha veeryam, lagu, ruksham. It is a bitter tonic that has stomachic, febrifuge and anthelmintic, appetizer, laxative, alterative, antidiarrhoeic and antiperiodic properties. Chiraita is an effective drug forreducing fevers specially malarial fevers.

it is an excellent medicine for strengthening the stomach and promoting its action thus used in treating stomach disorders like dyspepsia and diarrhoea.  its anthelmintic properties help in destroying intestinal worms. An infusion of the herb is taken for this purpose.


1. The root of the plant is useful in curing hiccups and vomiting.

2. The herb can also be used for range of other diseases and conditions including leprosy, leucoderma, scabies, neuro-muscular disorders, menorrhagia, menstrual irregularity, urinary disease, heart disease, asthma, cough , dyscrasia, ulcer, jaundice and anaemia.

3. Chiraita is used as a preventative measure for malaria during epidemics.

BHILAWA (Semecarpus Anacardium)


English names: indian marking nut tree, marany nut, marking nut tree, marking nut-tree

Botanical name : semecarpus anacardiumfamily: anacardiaceae

Indian name : marking nut, oriental cashew,bhallatak,ker,bhallatak

part used : fruits

Description: the marking nut tree, occurs in the wild in the sub-himalayan tract, up to 3,500 ft. , in assam, khasi hills, madhya pradesh;, gujarat, konkan, and the deciduous forests of the southern states of india. It is similar to the cashew nut tree, in having an edible false fruit that is orange and fleshy.   like the cashew nut, the true fruit is black, oily and bitter.   the kernels of the nut are edible, but the juice of the nut is highly vesicant, and has been traditionally used to mark cloth by washer men. The tree bark exudes a gum resin used in leprosy, venereal infections and nervous debility.   juice from the nut is used in ascites, rheumatism, asthma, neuralgia, epilepsy and psoriases, as well as for warts and tumours.   the juice of the nut was effective against epidermal carcinoma.   it also has some antidiabetic activity.   nut bruised and the exudates is used as an abortifacient and a vermifuge.


1. It is extremely beneficial in the diseases like piles, colitis, diarrhea, dyspepsia, ascites, tumours and worms.

2. The fruit is useful in leucoderma, scaly skin, allergic, dermatitis, poisonous bites, leprosy, cough, asthma, and dyspepsia.

3. The fruits, their oil and the seeds have great medicinal value, and are used to treat the wide range of diseases. Externally, the oil, mixed with coconut or sesame oil, is applied on wounds and sores to prevent the pus formation

Punarnava (boerhavia Diffusa)


Botnical name-boerhavia diffusa

english name – spreading hogweed, horse purslane

indian name –punarnava

this ayurvedic herb is found throughout india. It is a creeping and spreading perennial herb, with a stout root-stock and many erect or spreading branches.  it grows up to 2 meters in length. The leaves of the plant are simple, broad, somewhat rough, thick and brittle.  the flowers are pink or red in color. The fruits are oval in shape, dull green or brownish in color and about the size of caraway bean.  punarnava is also known to possess properties to cure skin and soft tissue infections. It is also used in anemia cases, loss of appetite, jaundice, obesity and chronic but non-specific febrile conditions.

Puwar-seed (cassia Tora)


English name- Ring worm plant

Botanical Name: Cassia tora

Family: Fabaceae

Latin Name: Foetid cassia

Indian Name: Chakunda,Puwar,Takala,Chakramandrakam,Kawaria,Dadmari,SICKLE POD, COFFEE POD, TOVARA, CHAKVAD

Parts Used: seeds

Description An annual foetid herb, with a height of 30 to 90 cm, Cassia Tora is mainly found in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, in India. It has pinnate leaves, which are about 10 cm long. Each leaf has three pairs of leaflets that are opposite, ovate, oblong and oblique at the base. The yellow-colored flowers are bearded in the axel of the leaves. The flowers comprises of five petals, each about half inch in diameter.


1.Cassia Tora is used as a coffee substitute and has a maturing and anodyne action.

2.Useful in treating skin diseases like ring worm and itch and psoriasis.

3.The alcoholic or vinegar maceration of pounded fresh leaves is used externally to treat eczema and dermatomycosis.

4.Decoction of the fruit of Cassia Tora is used in the treatment of fever.

5.Since the herb acts as a kapha and vata dosha suppressant, it acts as a nerve tonic.

6.It is consumed in worm infestation and cures the infection occurring in the body.

Kuchla (strychnos Nuxvomica)


English Name :Nux-vomica

Botanical Name : Strychnos Nuxvomica

Indian Name : Kuchala beej,Itti beeja

Part Used: SEED,BARK

Common Name : Nux-vomica, Poison Nut, Snake-wood, Strychnine Tree, Quaker Buttons, Ma Qian ZiFamily Name : Loganiaceae

Description: This is a moderate-sized tree, with a short and pretty thick trunk. The wood is white, hard, and bitter. The leaves are opposite, oval, and smooth on both sides. Flowers small, greenish-white, funnel-shaped, and have a disagreeable odor. The fruit is a berry, round, and about the size of a large apple, enclosing five whitish seeds.


1.It is used in pruritis and as a local anodyne in inflammations of the external ear.

2.leaves are applied as a poultice on sloughing wounds and ulcers.

3.Used in the preparation of medicated product for the hair and scalp. improves the pulse and raises blood pressure and is of great value as a tonic to the circulatory system in cardiac failure. is used as a healing tonic and appetite stimulant

Bilaikand (Pueraria Tuberose)

English name: thistles

botanical name: eclipta alba

hindi: vidarikand,sural, bilaikand, bharda, tirra, bankumra

description: pueraria tuberosa, commonly known as kudzu, is a climber with woody tuberculated stem. It is a climbing, coiling and trailing vine with large tuberous rootsbhringraj is one of the ayurvedic herbs used as an ayurvedic tonic for treatment of hair loss, premature greying. It is used for the treatment of devitalized hair.


1. The herb reduces vata and normalizes kapha, which increases shukra dhatu. This shukra dhatu helps in increasing hard erections,libido and sexual energy.

2. Bhringraj is used as a rejuvenative medicine in ayurveda. It is used as a tonic for keeping the body healthy and fit.

3. It has many uses. Mainly, it is used in hair treatment. It is also used in treatment of skin diseases, eye infections, hyperacidity, anemia.

4. It is also used to relieve post delivery uterine pain. Intestinal worms in infants leaves extract should be given with honey. It has antiaging properties.

5. Kudzu is widely used in skin diseases that cause discoloration. 6. It revitalizes the whole body and increases muscle bulk.

Shikakai (Acacia Sinuata)


Plant species Botanical Name Acacia sinuata  (LOUR.) MERR.


Habit Liana Used In Ayurveda and Folk Distribution This species is globally distributed in Indo-Malesia. Within India, it is found in tropical jungles throughout, especially in Peninsular India. Common Uses Useful in skin diseases, ulcers, swelling, stomatitis, and it is laxative.Laxative:Ghee prepared with the root is used as a laxative in chronic cases of skin diseases, rheumatic disorders and body swelling.  Acacia sinuata Distribution I Language Vernacular Name (No. of Names) Hindi  (5) koci, satala, ritha, allah, shikakai Oriya

(1) chilli Parts Used Trade Name (No. of  Names) Not recorded  (8) chikakai  (shikakai), chikakai  (sikakai), chikakhai, shikakai, shikakai new, shikhakhai, sika kai, sikakaiPOWDER  (1) chikakhai FRUIT  (1) shikakai

Datura Seed (Datura Stramonium)


Plant species Botanical Name Datura stramonium L.

Family SOLANACEAEHabit Un-shrub

Used In Ayurveda, Folk, Homeopathy, Unani and Sidha Distribution Globally the species is found in naturalized state from tropical to warm temperate regions of the world, though it is beleived to be a native of North America. Within India it is more commonly seen in the hilly regions, including Himalayas, upto 2400 m altitude.  thorn-apple, jimson or jamestown weed, stramonium, jimsonweed, apple-of-peru, devil s-apple, jamestown weed, mad apple, stinkweed, thorn weed Hindi  (4) datura, dhaturo, dhatura, kala dhatura Parts Used Trade Name (No. of  Names) Not recorded  (2) dhaturabeej, dhaturapanLEAVES  (3) stramonium leaves, datura, ummati soppu SEEDS  (2) oomathan, umathi



Botanical Name : SYZYGIUM CUMINI

Family Name : MYRTACEAE


Part Used : Seeds, Leaves, Fruits, Bark

Uses : The leaves are antibacterial, and are used for strengthning the teeth and gums.. The fruit and seeds are sweet, acrid, sour, tonic, and cooling, and are used in diabities, diarrhoea and ringworm. The bark is astringent, sweet sour, diuretic, digestive and anthelmintic.

Amaltas (Cassia Fistula)


Botanical Name : Cassia Fistula Family Name : Caesulpinaceae

Common Name : Fistula, Laburnum, Purging Fistula, Golden Shower, Amaltas

Part Used : Fruits, Bark Habitat : Grows in valleys upto 1200 m in himalayas.

Product offered : Seeds, Fruit, Pod, Fruit pulpUses : Roots are astringent, cooling, purgative, febrifuge and tonic. it is useful in skin diseases, burning sensations and syphilis. Bark is laxative, anthelmintic, emetic, febrifuge, diuretic and depurative. It is useful in boils, leprosy, ringworm affection, colic, dyspepsia, constipation, diabetes, strangury and cardiac problems. Leaves are laxative, antiperiodic and depurative. It is useful in skin diseases, burning sensation, dry cough and bronchitis. Fruits are sweet, cooling, purgative, carminative, anti-inflammatory, diuretic and ophthalmic. It is used in flatulence, colic, dysentery, inflammations and intermittent fever. It is also used in cardiac disorders, strangury, opthalmopathy and general debility. Pulp from fruits called “Cassia Pulp” is a well known Laxative. Bark of tree is rich in tannins. Flowers are bitter, acrid, cooling, emollient, purgative and are useful in vitiated condition of pitta, burning sensation, leprosy and skin diseases. It is also useful in cardiac disorders, intermittent fever and general debility.

Tulsi Patra (Ocimum Tenuiflorum)



Tulsi Leaves/ Ocimum Sanctum offered by us have many medicinal properties. These are processed under hygienic conditions and help to mobilize mucus in bronchitis and asthma. Chewing tulsi leaves is highly beneficial in cold and flu.

Kaknasa (Martynia Annua)


Botanical Name Martynia annua L.Family PEDALIACEAE

 Habit Herb Used In Ayurveda, Folk and Sidha

Distribution This species is native to Mexico and Central America, introduced and naturalised in the tropics. Within India, it is found throughout India,in waste places, rubbish heaps and along road sides.

bag lucha, baghnakh, baghnokh Dogri

Ashwgandha (Withania Somnifera)



Botanical Name : Withania Somnifera

Family Name : Solanaceae

Common Name : Withania, Winter Cherry, Indian Winter Cherry, Indian Ginseng, Ashwagandha

Part Used : Roots, Leaves Habitat : Cultivated throughout drier parts of india. Product offered : Roots

Uses : It is tonic, abortifacient, astringent, deobstruent, nervine, aphrodisiac and sedative. It is official Indian Pharmacoepeia. It is popularly known as Indian Ginseng. It gives vitality and vigour and helps in building greater endurance.It has been used in diseases such as rheumatism, leprosy and arthritis. Used to treat general debility, arthritis, depression, chronic fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, depressed immunity, infertility and memory loss. It increases the iron content in the blood.

Baibrang (embelia Ribes)


Sanskrit: Vidanga English: Embella

Botanical: Embelia ribes, Embelia Indica, Embelia Glandulifera, Embelia Robusta

Hindi: Baibrang, Wawrung  Telugu: Vayuvidangalu

Common names: Vidanga, Viranga,Chitratandoola, Vayuvilangam, Vizhal, Vrishanasana,Vayivilangam, Varading, Tandula, Vara, Vilal, bhasmaka  Family name: Myrsinaceae  .

Parts used: Berries  (fruit)Leaves Root Bark

Properties and Action According to Indigenous Medical Systems: Rasa: Spicy Veerya: Ushna veerya.


The nature of the herb is alterative, anthelmintic, carminative and stimulant. Good remedy for abdominal disorders and constipation. It cures the problems like gas, indigestion. Recommended for fungus infections. This remedy also applicable for head ache, heart disease, insanity and hemorrhoids. It removes tape worms from stomach. The combination of honey and the powder of Vidanga clears the germs-Charaka.

Babul Gum


Acacia, popularly known as babul, is a large tree, up to 14 meters high, with thorns on its branches. It has darkish grey bark and yellow flowers in spherical heads.

Babul tree is indigenous to Sind in Pakistan. It occurs wild in India and tropical Africa. It is planted for its bark. The tree yields a gum, known as babul gum. The bark of babul tree contains tannin and gallic acid. The leaves and fruits of the tree also contain tannin and gallic acid.

Healing Power and Curative Properties The leaves, the bark, the pods and the gum of the tree have medicinal virtues. The leaves and the bark are useful in arresting secretion or bleeding. The pods help remove catarrhal matter and phlegm from the bronchial tubes. The gum allays any irritation of the skin and soothes the inflamed membranes of the pharynx, alimentary canal and genito-urinary organs.


Babachi (psoralea Corylifolia)


Botanical Name Psoralea corylifolia L.Family FABACEAE

Habit Herb Used In Ayurveda, Folk, Homeopathy, Tibetian, Unani and Sidha

Distribution Globally the species is distributed in Pakistan, India, SriLanka, Myanmar  (earlier Burma), China and Arabia. Within India, it is seen along roadsides and waste places of the tropical regions. It is cultivated in several tropical regions of India.

Common UsesThe seed, root and leaves of Bakuci is used in the form of powder to treat skin diseases, vitiligo, minor skin diseases, poisoning, for conception, caries, deafness, filaria, wound and as rejuvinative. Kustha Anointment with the powder of bakuci mixed with sunthi  (zingiber officinale) destroys severe and chronic kustha Vitiligo Decoction of amalaka  (Phyllanthus emblica) and khadira  (acacia catechu)  (heart wood) added with bakuci powder should be used regularly keeping on wholesome diet. It alleviates vitiligo

Satavar (Asparagus Racemosus)


Our herb Asparagus Racemosus is known widely for its beneficial features and we provide it in the purest quality. Asparagus racemosus or according to its more popular name “shatavari” is considered to be very beneficial for humans. This herb is known to be a very good aphrodisiac and also is very useful for overall women health and development. Shatavari is considered to be the main ingredient in Ayurvedic rejuvenating female tonic for overall health and vitality. The reputed adaptogenic effects of Shatavari may be attributed to its concentrations of saponins, known as Shatavarins. Common Name : Satavari Scientific Name : Asparagus racemosus Benefits Good for health Rejuvenating female tonic Provides health and vitality High concentrations of saponins Good aphrodisiac Good anodyne

Safed Moosli (Chlorophytum Borivilianum)


Chlorophytum Borivilianum or Safed musli is a traditional plant and its tubers are used in Ayurvedic medicines.Safed musli is a very valuable gift from Nature.


1.Safed Musli mainly used in preparation of general Health Tonic and General Sex Tonic.

2.Useful in Sexual debilities.

3.It is very useful in Impotency.

4.It provides power and energy who are physically weak.

5.It is used as curative for Natal and Post Natal problems.

6.Remedy for Diabetes,Arthritis,Joint Pains,and Rheumatism.



Neem is a very famous herb of India and is used as a dietary supplement. The leaves of Neem help to maintain healthy circulatory, digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract system. We offer Neem Leaves in hygienic packaging to our clients so that these do not loose their medicinal properties.

Kamarkas (salvia Plebeian)


We provide the best quality Salvia plebeian or “kamarkas” according to its Indian name, which is known and used widely right from the ancient times. It has its description and usage in ayurveda and thus is an excellent herb. It is useful in curing a lot of ailments. This plant is useful as refreshment and sterile for promoting urination and is useful in thread worm infections.

Common name : Kamarkas

Scientific name : Salvia PlebeianAppearance

• Derived from gum tree branches in crystal-like form


• In food and beverages

• Known to be medicinal

• Ayurvedic medicines

• Dietary items

Gum Karaya  (Kateela)


gum karaya  (e413,tragacanth) also known as indian gum tragacanth is a gum exudate obtained from the tree sterculia urens. Gum is polysaccharide insoluble in water and forms colloidal solution. In water yielding high viscocity. The high viscocity properties of the solutions and the swelling ability of the gum enable its utilisation in different industries in the value added forms viz. , granules and powder.

Kundru  (boswellia Serrata)


Common name : Kunduru, Salai

Scientific Name : Boswellia Serrata

We are offering pure and processed Boswellia serrata or commonly known as Indian frankincense or Salai. It is found in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh in India. Its aroma is generally considered to be far inferior compared to Boswellia sacra or Boswellia frereana. Boswellia serrata is used in the manufacture of the supposed anti-wrinkle agent “Boswelox”. Boswellia is the gummy resin of the boswellia tree. It is native to India and used for centuries by Ayurvedic doctors. It is an Ayurvedic plant that contains anti-inflammatory terpenoids called boswellic acids.

Herb description

• Boswellia Serrata is a medium sized tree

• With ash coloured papery bark.

• The leaves are like neem plant and have small white flowers.


Botanical Name : Commiphora Mukul Family Name : Burseraceae

Common Name : Commiphora, Mukul, Guggul, Balsamodendrom Mukul, Indian Bdellium Tree, Moql, Moqle-arzagi.

Part Used : Whole Plant Habitat : Rocky tracks of western india and eastern himalayas.

Product offered : Gum Resins Uses : It is carminative, antispasmodic, disphoretic, ecobolic, anti-suppurative and emmenagogue. Gum resin used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is a potent drug for cardiac disorders high cholesterol. It is an ingredient for over fifty compounds. It is widely promoted as a weight loss agent that supposedly enhances thyroid function. It is also used in perfumery, mouthwashes, massage and diffuser.

BAHERA (Terminalia Belerica)

Botanical name : terminalia belerica

Family name : combretaceae

Common name : beleric, belliric myrobalan, baehra

Part used : fruits

Habitat : grown throughout india.

Product offered : fruits, hull

Uses : it is astringent, tonic, expectorant and laxative. It is used in coughs and sore throat.  its pulp is used in dropsy, piles and diarrhoea. It is also useful in leprosy, fever and hair care.  it is also used in oxalic acid and preparation of ink. It is used in case of rheumatism. Seed oil is applied in skin diseases and premature graying of hair.

Jatropha Seeds

Family Name : Euphorbiaceae

Common Name : Jatropha Seeds, Purging Nut, Psysic Nut.

 Part Used : Jatropha Seeds, Jatropha Leaves.

Habitat : Cultivated throughout india.

Product offered : Seeds, Oil

Uses : Jatropha is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark, which exudes whitish colored, watery latex when cut. It grows between three and five meters in height, but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favorable conditions. Oil has a very high saponification value and is being extensively used for making soap in some countries. The oil is used as an illuminant as it burns without emitting smoke. Oil cake of Jatropha is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and can be used as organic manure. It is a drought resistant shrub with a smooth gray bark. It contains anti-cancerous properties. It is also used as an external application for skin diseases and rheumatism and for sores on domestic livestock. In addition, the tender twigs of the plant are used for cleaning teeth, while the juice of the leaf is used as an external application for piles. The roots are used as an antidote for snakebites. A decoction of roots and leaves is given for diarrhoea. Root bark is used in external applications for sore.

Gataran (Caesalpinia Crista)


Botanical name : caesalpinia crista family name : caesalpiniaceae

hindi name : kantkarej, kantikaranja,  sagar gota.

 Common name : bonducella nut, fever nut, molucca bean.

English name : fever nut

tamil name : kalichikaisanskrit name : putrakaranj

SEMAL MUSLI (Bombax Mulabaricum)


Botanical    Name— Bombax malabaricum Family-.BOMBOCACEAE

Hindi-semal; English-silk cotton tree;

Telugu-Bürugu cettu, Malayalam – mullilave Introduction— The thorns are pounded with milk is a famous remedy for Acne infestation. Its fruit is poisonous.

Sonth (Dry Ginger)

Botanical Name— Zingiber Officinalis English-Dry Ginger Hindi-Sonth,Calamus, Sweet Ginger, Ginger Root Introduction— These herbs are used as prophylactic of nausea and vomiting associated with motion, sickness, sea sickness and pregnancy. These are regarded as beneficial herbs for their gastrointestinal benefits and as an anti inflamatory and carminative. Useful in bronchitis, colds, congestion, diarrhea, flu, headache, nausea, rheumatism, sore throat, they also act as an adjunct to many tonic and stimulating remedies.

TejPhal (Zanthoxylum Alatum)

Botanical Name— Zanthoxylum Alatum Family : Rutaceae

Description: This shrub is found in North America, Nepal, India, and Bhutan.

Parts Used: Bark, carpels, carpels of fruits, seeds English-Dry Ginger


Introduction— A large shrub or small tree grows up to 6 meters in height. Leaves compound, imparipinnate, rachis winged, leaflets 5-11 lanceolate, serrate with gland dots. Flowers yellow in terminal or axillary panicles. Fruits reddish globose follicle. Seeds solitary, globose and shining.

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES Plant pacifies vitiated kapha, vata, tumors, headache, diarrhea, hepatitis, fever, leukoderma, skin diseases, cough, asthma, paralysis, arthritis, diabetes, wounds, ulcers, cardiac debility and general debility.